The qualitative variables were National Academy of Science membership, election as American Psychological Association president or receipt of the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, and surname used as a eponym (i. e. , a psychological term such a Pavlovian conditioning or Skinner box) to represent a theory, procedure, or apparatus. Objective: You are going to learn a little bit about the history of psychology and the APA style of citations, by conducting research and writing a 2 to 3 page paper – typed, double spaced and 12 point Times New Roman font – on one of the individuals from the list below: . B. F. Skinner 2. Jean Piaget 3. Sigmund Freud 4. Albert Bandura 5. Leon Festinger 6. Carl Rogers 7. Stanley Schachter 8. Neal Miller 9. Edward Thorndike 10. Abraham Maslow 11. Gordon Allport 12. Erik Erikson 13. Hans J. Eysenck 14. William James 15. David McClelland 16. Raymond Cattell 17. John B. Watson 18. Kurt Lewin 19. Donald O. Hebb 20. George A. Miller 21. Clark L. Hull 22. Jerome Kagan 23. Carl Jung 24. Ivan Pavlov 25. Walter Mishcel Though not in the top 25, you can pick Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Lawrence Kohlberg, Wolfgang Kohler, or Margaret Washburn. Procedures: 1.
Select your psychologist by looking him/her up in your textbook. The textbook will help you quickly understand their contribution to the field and also help you with some terminology you may not understand in other sources. 2. After choosing a psychologist, conduct research in order to become an expert on him or her. Make sure you keep track of your sources. You should use a minimum of three sources and one of the three can be your textbook. See my website for links to good websites. I highly recommend the book The Story of Psychology by Morton Hunt which has information on most of the psychologists on the list.
You are welcome to borrow my copy and the library also has a copy. In addition, the two volume reference book Psychologists and Their Theories for Students, housed in the library, is also an excellent resource. In fact, this book may help you select a psychologist. 3. Develop your paper around an argument (thesis) for why your psychologist should be number one on the most eminent list. Make sure the title of your paper links to this argument. 4. Do not write a biography! You need to pick and choose what information to use in your paper. What information you select depends on the content of your thesis tatement. You might focus on the major impact of his/her work/theories in the field of psychology, the types of research methods utilized in his/her experiments, the practical applications of his/her research, his/her major publications, and/or the school of psychology to which he/she belongs. The number of body paragraphs you write depends on the number of supporting statements. 5. Cite your facts using parenthetical citations and format your paper, using American Psychological Association (APA) format (see the attached APA format document or the APA link on my website). Include a cover and reference page. 6.
Writing a research paper is a multi-step process. Do not attempt to complete all of the above steps in one night! How to do your references page: Books: Calfee, R. C. , & Valencia, R. R. (1991). The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Original source found in a current source (e. g. older studies cited in a newer book) Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans. ), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Hogarth Press. Anonymous or unknown author (common in newspapers):
Caffeine linked to mental illness. (1991, July 13). New York Times, pp. B13, B15. World Wide Web page: Bixley, T. S. (1995) Sentient microfilaments. Retrieved from http://www. microfilaments. com/consciousness/synchronicity/quantum tube. html. *If there is no date, put n. d. in its place. Group or institutional authors: University of Pittsburgh. (1993). The title goes here. Journal of Something, 8, 5-9. Journal article: Guenzel, N. (1996, Autumn) Altruism in three states. Whitman Journal of Psychology, (5)1, 67-73. Letter to the editor: O’Neill, G. W. (1992, January). In support of DSM-III [Letter to the editor]. APA Monitor, p. -5. Magazine article: Gardner, H. (1991, December 9). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today, pp. 70-76. Newsletter article: Brown, L. S. (1993, Spring). My research with orangs. The Psychology Department Newsletter, pg. 3. Pamphlet: Just Say No Foundation. (1992). Saving our youth. (9th ed. ) [Brochure]. Washington, DC: Author. Article in a Newspaper Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A. In-Text Citations In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper. . Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis the author’s last name and the date of publication. For quotations, provide a page number as well. The punctuation mark should follow the citation. Example: (Greenwood, 19, p. 2). 2. When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number, but keep the citation brief – do not repeat the information. Example: Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p. 1). Example: A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p. 11) 3. There are several formats for a summary of paraphrase. Use signal verbs: acknowledge, contend, maintain, respond, report, argue, conclude, etc. Example: Smith (1998) argues that ……. 4. When citing a work with more than one author, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis. Example: (Harklau, Siegel, and Losey, 1999) Example: (Smith et al. , 1983)