Approaches in Psychology

We can also describe the definition of developmental psychology as “It is the study in which behavior develop and change during a life span. Special areas of interest include the development of language, social attachments, emotions, thinking and perception” More In Developmental Psychology: Developmental psychology is the scientific study of age-related changes throughout the human life span. A discipline of scientific inquiry, developmental psychology recognizes humans of all societies and cultures as beings who are “in process,” or constantly growing and changing.

There’s a special device or you can say that there’re special cells in the brain of a baby and has the specific period by which baby learns the language and this type of thing is not available in the minds of animals. The development of emotions and thinking are also based upon the development of mind and language. When a baby learn the language he also try to act and shows emotions like hunger, pain and something like that. 2- Industrial Psychology: What is Industrial Psychology? Industrial and Organizational Psychology is a specialist rea that applies psychological knowledge and skills to work, with the aim of improving organizational effectiveness and the quality of work life. More In Industrial Psychology: Psychologists in this field advise businesses and organizations on a variety of subjects: the selection and training of workers; how to promote efficient working conditions and techniques; how to boost employee morale, productivity, and job satisfaction; and the best ways to evaluate employee performance and create incentives that motivate workers.

I-O psychology first became prominent during World War II (1939-1945), when it became necessary to recruit and train the large number of new workers who were needed to meet the expanding demands of industry. The selection of workers for particular jobs is essentially a problem of discovering the special aptitudes and personality characteristics needed for the job and of devising tests to determine whether candidates have such aptitudes and characteristics. The development of tests of this kind has long been a field of psychological research.

Once the worker is on the job and has been trained, the fundamental aim of the I-O psychologist is to find ways in which a particular job can best be accomplished with a minimum of effort and a maximum of individual satisfaction. The psychologist’s function, therefore, differs from that of the so-called efficiency expert, who places primary emphasis on increased production. Psychological techniques used to lessen the effort involved in a given job include a detailed study of the motions required to do the job, the equipment used, and the conditions under which the job is performed.

These conditions include ventilation, heating, lighting, noise, and anything else affecting the comfort or morale of the worker. After making such a study, the I-O psychologist often determines that the job in question may be accomplished with less effort by changing the routine motions of the work itself, changing or moving the tools, improving the working conditions, or a combination of several of these methods. Industrial-organizational psychologists have also studied the effects of fatigue on workers to determine the length of working time that yields the greatest productivity.

In some cases such studies have proven that total production on particular jobs could be increased by reducing the number of working hours or by increasing the number of rest periods, or breaks, during the day. I-O psychologists may also suggest less direct requirements for general improvement of job performance, such as establishing a better line of communication between employees and management. 3- Child Psychology: What is Child Psychology? It’s the study in which we study how children grow and issues related with their upbringing, physical and psychological health. More In Child Psychology:

Child Development, physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes that occur from birth to adolescence. Although people change throughout their lives, developmental changes are especially dramatic in childhood. During this period, a dependent, vulnerable newborn grows into a capable young person who has mastered language, is self-aware, can think and reason with sophistication, has a distinctive personality, and socializes effortlessly with others. Many abilities and characteristics developed in childhood last a lifetime. Some developments in behavior and thought are very similar for all children.

Around the world, most infants begin to focus their eyes, sit up, and learn to walk at comparable ages, and children begin to acquire language and develop logical reasoning skills at approximately the same time. These aspects of individual growth are highly predictable. Other aspects of development show a much wider range of individual differences. Whether a child becomes outgoing or shy, intellectually advanced or average, or energetic or subdued depends on many unique influences whose effects are difficult to predict at the child’s birth. A variety of factors influence child development.

Heredity guides every aspect of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and personality development. Family members, peer groups, the school environment, and the community influence how children think, socialize, and become selfaware. Biological factors such as nutrition, medical care, and environmental hazards in the air and water affect the growth of the body and mind. Economic and political institutions, the media, and cultural values all guide how children live their lives. Critical life events, such as a family crisis or a national emergency, can alter the growth of personality and identity.

Most important of all, children contribute significantly to their own development. This occurs as they strive to understand their experiences, respond in individual ways to the people around them, and choose activities, friends, and interests. Thus, the factors that guide development arise from both outside and within the person. Why is the study of child development important? One reason is that it provides practical guidance for parents, teachers, child-care providers, and others who care for children. A second reason is that it enables society to support healthy growth.

Understanding early brain development, for example, means that parents can provide better opportunities for intellectual stimulation, and society can reduce or eliminate obstacles to healthy brain growth. Third, the study of child development helps therapists and educators better assist children with special needs, such as those with emotional or learning difficulties. Finally, understanding child development contributes to self-understanding. We know ourselves better by recognizing the influences that have made us into the people we are today. 4- Educational Psychology:

What is Educational Psychology? Educational Psychology, application of scientific method to the study of the behavior of people in instructional settings. Although the behavior of teachers and students is of greatest interest, educational psychologists also study the behavior of other groups, such as teacher aides, infants, migrants, and the aged. The areas covered by educational psychologists inevitably overlap with other areas of psychology, including child and adolescent development, social psychology, psychological testing, and educational counseling.

There are different theories of child psychology which are as follow: • Learning (Different theories of learning help educational psychologists understand, predict, and control human behavior. For example, educational psychologists have worked out mathematical models of learning that predict the probability of a person’s making a correct response; these mathematical theories are used to design computerized instruction in reading, mathematics, and secondlanguage learning. Different psychologist have their contribution in this field. Ivan Pavlov and B.

F Skinner are prominent) • Motivation (Attribution theory describes the role of motivation in a person’s success or failure in school situations. Success on a test, for instance, could be attributed to luck or hard work; the theory predicts the behavior of students depending on their responses. ) • Development (The theory of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget that intellectual ability is qualitatively different at different ages and that children need interaction with the environment to gain intellectual competency has influenced all of education and psychology.