Many farmers were considered peasants in the 800s. SIG: Peasants would revolt and cause movements that go against the economic reasoning. The movements were usually to gain recognition for their work and other reasons. Yeomen ID: A servant who gives assistance to royal households or other great households SIG: A yeomen farmer was the ideal American which is being independent and hardworking. They were the best type of citizen to have a say in politics. Dower ID:The portion of property a widow receives from her deceased husband’s belongings. SIG: In the 18th and 19th centuries dower rights were not given much attention.
In 1945, dower was abolished but some states still allowed bits of property to be given to a widow. Primogeniture ID: Being the firstborn and eldest of the children of the same parents. Also receiving the largest portion of the father’s property after the death of the father. SIG: This ensured that powerful families kept their power in their family line. Pagans ID: a follower of a polytheistic religion or an irreligious person. SIG: This is significant because many American pagan religions contain different traditions that are similar to to others. Also traditions have been passed down for thousands of years.
Heresy ID: When one has a belief that is mutually opposed to a church or religious system. SIG: This separated church and states. A result from this was the unappreciative countries towards the American Church’s optimism. Civic Humanism ID: The idea that one should participate actively in serving its leader or state in the 15th century. SIG: The language of civic humanism was a tool to the leaders who Republics ID: a body of people viewed as a commonwealth or a state where the head of government is not a monarch. SIG: The government of the United States is based partly on Rome’s model of a republic and the U.
S has been authorized by the United States Corporation created in 1871. The forming of a republic from Rome’s model is a significant part of US history. Guilds ID: An association of people who have some power and are reaching a common goal. SIG: These were important for trading and small societies that could have grew to be important in history. Reconquista ID:The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain from the 1100s to 1492. SIG: It is important to study because the Christian people fought until they expelled their enemies. The Reconquista became an ethnic need.
Conquistadors ID: A Spanish conqueror of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century. SIG: They were mercenaries who were responsible for the near extinction of native people in present day US, Mexico, and Central America. Encomiendas ID: A system created in 1503 which guaranteed Spanish soldiers land with Indians. SIG: This led to forced labor which led to enslavement which was used in the US for years. Columbian Exchange ID: This was an exchange between the new and old world of culture, plants, animals, and diseases. This changed the way Europeans and Native Americans lived.
SIG: This affected both sides of the world culturally and socially. Mestizos ID: a person of mixed ancestry from Latin America SIG:Mestizos were born to give power to the Spaniards and maintain their power. This affected races by not being biological instead history. Caste System ID: a Hindu system of social classes based on castes SIG: it was important because it divided labor in societies Indulgences ID: a pardon from punishments that would have happened due to sins SIG: Indulgences emerged in the 1 lth century when the idea of purgatory spread. Reformers complained about the selling of indulgences.
Predestination ID:the idea that God has determined who will be saved and who will not SIG: People hought the idea came so the conquistadors can be forgiven for what they did to the natives. Mercantilism ID: A system that worked to unify a nation by strict regulations of national economy. SIG: European countries had knowledge with building empires and engaging in the system of mercantilism. The colonies in the United States grew and the English knew they could increase trade and benefit from it. Price Revolution ID: The 16th century era of sustained inflation SIG: This led to the price of food to rise and fall.
The prices were changing often due and gold from the New World that was brought to Europe. Part Two: Chapter 1 Questions . The four main characteristics of the Indian civilizations in Mesoamerica where art, religion, society and economy. These characteristics were equal to those of Europe and the Mediterranean. Mesoamericans portrayed art through dance, pottery, and music. All of the Mesoamerican religions were polytheistic and the gods had to be given offerings. Mesoamericans did not have unity, so they were divided in a social hierarchy. The economy relied on agriculture because of the scarce amount of large animals. . The eastern woodland Indian societies were organized and governed by self-governing tribes composed of clans. In their culture, the elders would encourage local chief, who aided clan elders conducted ceremonies and regulated personal life. Gender played a role when it came to farming because it was the province of both sexes, but among eastern Woodland Indians it was the work of women. These societies were matrilineal, which is the inheritance one receives from the female line of ancestors. Farmers focused on religious ceremonies related to the agricultural cycle