In recent years, however, career now refers to changes or modifications in employment during the foreseeable future Career Management Career Management is the combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one’s own professional career. It includes 1. Development of overall goals and objectives, 2. Development of a strategy (a general means to accomplish the selected goals/objectives), 3. Development of the specific means (policies, rules, procedures and activities) to implement the strategy, and 4.
To understand the career management process • To find out the role of individual in career management ; how an individual make this process better. • To know the organizational role I the process of career management Today with intense competition everywhere, coupled with economic changes, companies are aggressively pursuing the strategies for downsizing, outsourcing, and synergy through alliances.
Pursuing strategies that result in loss of jobs is a distressing experience – both for those who get the axe and the people who are still with the company. It is in context of this corporate reality that career management assume more significance Methodology and Research Design The study attempts to understand the organization ; individual role in managing the career stages through which an average individual passes. The research methodology, which I have chosen, is deductive in which primary data collected by Questionnaire which is composed have close ended and open ended questions ; secondary data is collect by means of net ; libraries.
The Career Management process The process begins with the goal setting then further stages making is shape. Goals/objectives Development The career management process begins with setting goals/objectives. A relatively specific goal must be formulated. This task may be quite difficult when the individual lacks knowledge of career opportunities and/or is not fully aware of their talents and abilities. However, the entire career management process is based on the • Short term goals (one or two years) are usually much more specific and limited in scope.
Short terms goals are, of course, are easier to formulate. • Intermediate goals (3 to 5 years) tend to be less specific and more open ended than short term goals. Long term goals are the most fluid of all. Lack of life experience and knowledge about potential opportunities make the formulation of long term goals difficult. • Making career choices and decisions • Managing the organizational career – concerns the career management tasks of individuals within the workplace, such as decision-making, life-stage transitions, dealing with stress etc. Taking control of one’s personal development – as employers take less responsibility, employees need to take control of their own development in order to maintain and enhance their employability. Stages of career management Career formation starts during school years and ends at the retirement age five career stages regardless of occupation can be identified as, The exploration stage This stage ends for most individuals as they make transition from formal education programs to work.
The grueling pressure and competition have left youngsters unprogrammed, exhausted, cynical, and chronically anxious about their future instead of being most optimistic and hopeful. Educational psychologists tell us that they are seeing record number of teenagers who are overwhelmed by the pressure and paralyzed by the tremendous number of choices available to them The establishment stage The period begins with the search for work and includes getting the first job, being accepted by your peers, learning the job, and gaining the first tangible evidence of success and failure in the “real world”.
It begins with uncertainties and anxieties, feeling of excitement and fear and is, indeed, dominated by two problems: finding a “niche” and “making your mark” Although the specific causes of early career disappointments vary from person to person, some general causes have been identified. Studies of the early career problems of young managers typically find that those who experience frustrations are victims of “reality shock” (Ivancevich, 2004). These young managers perceive a mismatch between what they thought the organization was and what it actually is.
Young professionals enter an organization with technical knowledge but often without an understanding of the organization’s demands and expectations one reason for this could be that the new recruits are not provided with realistic job preview during the recruiting process. A realistic job preview provides the prospective employee with pertinent information about the job without exaggeration. Organization role during this period could be in the area of socializing, orienting and mentoring of new recruits.
When we talk about socializing, and developing employees, referring to a process of helping new employees adapt to their new organization, to get them to become fully productive, thus helping them to develop their self-efficacy level. However in this stage individuals have yet to reach their peak productivity. The organizations role here would be to provide an array of services, like career guidance and training . Training involves change of skills, knowledge, attitudes or behavior to help individuals to improve their ability to perform the job effectively and efficiently.
Training thus helps them to reduce the stress that arises due to personal inadequacy. Mid- Career stage This is a period when individuals continue their performance, or level off, or begin to deteriorate. The mid level executive experiences certain pressures, Haider & Supriya 187 which is unique because of the position he occupies in the organization The growing managers display a high need for self-actualization. They seek opportunities enabling them to use their skills and knowledge to reach their creative potential. A study of Indian Industries by Nanjanath et. al. 1980) has found that, of all the factors contributing to managerial effectiveness, the individual qualities of the managers top the list. The third option for mid-career deals with the employee whose performance begins to deteriorate. This stage for this kind of employee is characterized by loss of both interest and productivity at work Loss of productivity and managerial effectiveness has been reported to be a function of personal and environmental factors. Organizational roles play an important part in increasing the individual’s effectiveness in an organization.
Increased decision-making enhances the meaningfulness; employees find in work and provide them greater sense of autonomy, responsibility, certainty, control and ownership. Continued growth and high performance are not the only successful outcomes at this stage. Maintenance is another possible outcome of the mid-career stage. The organizational role here would be providing sensitivity training exercises, by getting survey feedback from employees to identify discrepancies if any, or simply moving them to another position in the organization. This can work to boost morale and productivity.
Decline Stage The decline or late stage in one’s career is difficult for just about everyone, but, ironically, is probably hardest on those who have had continued successes in the earlier stages. After decades of continued achievements and high level of performance, the time has come for retirement. These individual step out of the limelight and relinquish a major component of their identity. Educational workshops and seminars and counseling sessions are an invaluable way to help the pre-retirement persons make the transition from work to retirement.
Organizational efforts must include programs to facilitate pursuing careers financial planning, promotion of individual retirement programs and a comprehensive educational programs Back (1969) has suggested that the more the retirement is looked upon as a change to new status, the better the transition will be accomplished. Career management largely an individual’s responsibility If on one hand competition and cost economics are spreading insecurity in jobs and on the other hand competition and evolution of new industries which were nonexistent a couple of decades ago are opening a plethora of pportunities for the individuals to choose from. New opportunities and accompanying threats make the job markets extremely unpredictable. In such an uncertain environment, it is ultimately the responsibility of the individual to decide and make choices to pursue a desired career. Personal ambitions coupled with emerging business trends are increasingly shaping the career choice of the people. An organization can at best support an individual’s aspirations if in line with its business goals.
With this view of careers in today’s environment, an individual needs to change the way jobs have traditionally been looked at. A job is not merely a means of earning money, it must be viewed by the individuals as an opportunity for learning, so that when you are doing a job to fulfill you responsibility for the company, you are also strengthening your skills required to develop your career. Career management thus is primarily an individual responsibility. It is a life long process for an individual, where he continuously learns about his purpose, personality, skills and interests. [pic]
An individual must continuously review learning from his assignments and try to develop alternate perspectives of the job, which helps in enriching ones’ experience. Also a periodic relook at the job and the company along with the opportunities available outside will definitely help an individual in giving boost to his career advancement. Finally, one must take some time at some important milestones to assess his progress against the long term goals a review gives an opportunity for the individual to refine clarity on long term goals, which in turn will affect his further course of action.
Following points will be of immense help for an individual: • Taking a long term view of where one wants to be • Accept short term trade offs for long term benefits (low pay offer or some lateral move, which are vital for career development and contact building) • Judicious decision between specialized jobs and isolated jobs • Building the right connections – both inside and outside the firm • Assess oneself honestly • Keep abreast of changes and capture first mover advantage • Plan our exit (timing, convenience and dignity) [pic] Challenge for HR matching career aspirations with business needs Employee loyalty to the company is higher when the job fulfills intrinsic needs and personal goals of the employees. By assisting an individual in planning his career and providing opportunities for career development, an organization can ensure higher loyalty and productivity from employees. Challenge for HR professional is to match and support career expectation of performers with organizational requirements.