Read the focus questions at the start of each chapter to think about the main ideas you should look for as you read.
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Special features introduce the way historians work and help you learn to think critically about the past.
Numerous individual primary-source documents offer direct experiences of the past and the opportunity to consider sources historians use.
Contrasting Views provide three or four often conflict- ing eyewitness accounts of a cen- tral event, person, or development to foster critical thinking skills.
Seeing History pairs two visuals with background informa- tion and probing questions to encourage analysis of images as historical evidence.
New Sources, New Perspectives show how new evidence leads historians to fresh insights—and sometimes new interpretations.
Terms of History identify a term central to history writing and reveal how it is hotly debated.
Taking Measure data reveal how individual facts add up to broad trends and introduce quantitative analysis skills.
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Art and maps extend the chapter, and help you analyze images and put events in geographical context.
Full-size maps show major historical developments and carry informative captions.
Web references direct you to visual activities designed to help you analyze images.
Mapping the West summary maps provide a snapshot of the West at the close of each chapter.
“Spot” maps offer geographical de- tails right where you need them.
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Tools to help you remember the chapter’s main points and do further research
For print and Web resources for papers or further study, consult the For Further Explo- ration boxes at the end of each chapter, which guide you to annotated lists of suggested ref- erences, additional primary-source materials, and related Web resources.
Test your knowledge of the important concepts and historical figures in the Key Terms and People lists, which include page references to the text discussion and running glossary definition. These definitions are also in the glossary at the end of the book.
Answer the Review Questions, which repeat the chapter’s end-of- section comprehension prompts.
Answer the analytical Making Connections questions, which will help you link ideas within or across chapters.
Read the chapter conclusions to review how the chap- ters’ most important themes and topics fit together and learn how they connect to the next chapter.
Visit the free online study guide, which provides quizzes and activities to help you master the chapter material.
Review the Important Events chronologies to make sure you under- stand the relationships between major events in the chapter and their sequence.