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Frequency of cause: how many times you have been exposed into message a. Cumulative (more than one time) multiple b. Non-cumulative (base on taking one) 6. Nature of outcome a. Cognitive (do with fighting against what we believe) b. Affective (do with emotion or feeling) c. Behavioral (perform) EX. The table is soft, but I think it is hard (cognitive); “I don’t like tables any more” (affective); I will not buy it. (Behavioral) 3) Phases of effects research: research topics, theories, and typical research in the direct effects era, limited effects era, and conditional effects era 1.

Direct effects era Research topics and theories a. Looking at political propaganda b. Media perceived to be influential c. EX. “Hypodermic needle” and “magic bullet” theories (media are powerful) Research: research focus on content of media; little research on media effects 2. Limited effects era Research topics and theories a. Why are media not powerful? b. Ex. Selective exposure and selective retention theories Typical research: survey and content analysis 3. Conditional effects era Research topics and theories a. Looking for more subtle effects b.

Looking for conditions when effects may occur Typical research: broadened range of methods B) Research Methods Overview 1) Basic problems in media effects research 1. Problems of exposure: when someone consume the message, different level of exposure. 2. Problems of measurement 3. Problems of causality (you like to try everything) 2) Causal models: basic one-way model, supplemental models, and alternative causal models 1. Basic one-way model X- cause, independent (nature) Y- effect, dependent (depend on X) X Y 2. Supplement causal models The basic is right, but maybe two or more ways . Multiple causes model X X Y X b. Mutual causation model X Y c. Intervening model (not directly) X Z Y 3. Alternative causal models One-way model here is false a. Reverse causation model X Y b. Third-factor model X Y Z 3) Data collection methods: description, advantages, and disadvantages of content analysis, surveys, and experiments 1. Content analysis Numerical description of media a. Advantages Identifies what is in the media message that starts in message b. Disadvantages By itself, cannot demonstrate cause and effect . Surveys Asking representative sample, external validity a. Advantages 1) Representative sample of people 2) Measures naturally occurring events b. Disadvantages 1) Limited to questions 2) Cannot measure time order 3. Experiments Expose people to something: measure effects, internal, validity a. Advantages 1) Can observe/manipulate events 2) Can observe time order b. Disadvantages 1) Often uses limited sample of people 2) Artificial setting and situations C) Uses and Gratifications Theories 1) Uses and Gratifications defined and the uses and gratifications model 1. Defined

What happens before and during media exposure helps determine the effects of exposure 2. Model Psychological forces: individual, what you believe Social forces: outside influence, from others or… (Both happen at the same time) Reasons for exposure —— conditions of exposure: what do you feel—— media effects Example: Desire to vote correctly Professor urges you to engage in political process 2) Some reasons for media exposure (list of common media gratifications) 1. Surveillance Try to learn something, figure something out 2. Entertainment Look for to prove your mood 3. Interpersonal activity 1) You want to watch famous people, so you watch the TV show (2) You watch TV show, you want to talk to others about it. 4. Para social interaction We keep the relationship (you watch Opera, you believe her because she tells you what to do) 5. Personal Identity You watch TV show to improve yourself and expand your knowledge in the fields you are interested in. The similarity is between you and characters. D) Cultivation Theory 1) Constructed nature of social reality 1. The mind begins as a blank slate 2. Our reality is constructed for us by social interactions and institutions 3.

Part of the reality we construct is based on television reality 4. Television reality is wrong 2) Television reality: what is wrong with it; the consistency of the patterns Entertainment television presents a distorted view of America and the world. 62% characters are male People under 18 are only 1/3 of actual People over 65 are only 1/5 of actual Crime is 10 times as common as actual Medical and criminal justice workers many times as common as actual 3% of TV characters are responsible for an older adult 3) The Cultivation process: parts of the process 1. Where attitudes come from

Belief 1 Belief 2 attitude judgment Belief 3 EX. Beliefs and attitude toward police officers Police use brutality Police protect people Police abuse power 2. The cultivation model Viewer’s exposure to TV demographics 1) Exposure to TV demographics a. Who is on Television b. What they do and what happens to them 2) Viewers’ beliefs about people, places, and other social phenomena a. Who is out there in the world b. What they do and what happens to them 3) Views’ attitudes a. Based on beliefs about people, places, and other social phenomena b.

We infer importance status, and relative social place; we make judgments c. Mainstreaming process 4) Further specifications 1. When does Cultivation not occur? a. When direct experience differs from TV b. When people view critically c. When the TV message is not uniform 2. When is cultivation most likely to occur? a. When the message resonate with direct experience b. When… 5) Cultivation research: Content analyses and surveys 1. Content analysis of television 2. Survey research a. Exposure to TV b. Beliefs c. Attitudes 6) Criticisms of the theory 1. Difficult to establish causality 2. Too broad

E) General Media Effects Theories 1) Social Learning 1. Overview We can learn behavior by watching other’s behavior 2. How it works a. Basic model: Attention to performance of behavior b. Important conditions 1) Identification with model 2) Model rewards/consequences 3) Situational motivations The situation should be the same c. Categorizing the theory 1) Causes change 2) Individual-level 3) Long-term 4) Non-cumulative (only need to see performance once) 5) Behavioral focus 2) Excitation Transfer 1. Overview The excitement we get from media content can exaggerate our feelings 2.

How it works 1) Physiological arousal (transfer) Media content can be arousal Expose to arousing content 2) Exaggeration comes from misunderstanding the cause of arousal. 3) Categorizing the theory 1. Causes change 2. Individual level 3. Short-term 4. Non-cumulative 5. Affective focus 3) Exemplification A lot of times we see examples of people in news, we think about the represent issue, use the examples to judge issues. 1. How it works 1) People understand issues in terms of effect on other people 2) News stories supply examples of people and situations (exemplars); often extreme causes. ) People treat exemplars as typical cases 4) Exemplars are often easy to recall when a. No firm impression of actual situation b. Example created emotional reaction 5) Process Exposure to examples in News 6) Net effect: extreme, incorrect beliefs and judgments about social issues 2. Categorizing the theory 1) Causes change 2) Individual-level 3) Long-term 4) Non-cumulative 5) Cognitive focus 4) Desensitization a. The more you see bother the content, the less it bother you (content that used to bother you). b. How it works 1) Applies to affect-producing content 2) Basic model

Repeated exposure 3) Outcome can be affected or behavior change c. Categorizing the theory 1) Causes change 2) Individual-level 3) Long-term 4) Cumulative 5) Affective focus (first) 5) Catharsis Not very supported, but very interesting media provide opportunity for us to add up emotions. (Media content lets us imagine away negative feelings) 1. How it works 1) We have negative experience 2) Media provide venue for fantasizing 3) Basic model Negative feelings 2. Categorizing the theory 1) Causes change 2) Individual-level 3) Short-term 4) Non-cumulative 5) Affective focus ) Reinforcement Some media content encourage us to stay as we are (media reinforces what we already think, feel and do) 1. How it works 1) Builds from 2 basic observations a. Not everyone reacts to media content b. Many people already behave as suggested by content 2) Basic model Exposure to content 2. Categorizing the theory (does not cause change) 1) Reinforces 2) Individual-level 3) Long-term 4) Non-cumulative 5) Cognitive/affective/behavioral focus F) Media Violence and Aggression 1) Basic models of violence effects 1. Exposure to violence in media Exposure

Exposure Exposure 2. Exposure to violence in media 2) The research: content analysis, experiments, and survey studies 1. Content analysis (1) Count of violent acts Six percent of all TV shows have violence and have six hours (2) Perpetrators Good guys commit violence 3) Consequences (terrible) 70% of violent acts down, half of them show no harm or no pain. 4% content 2. Survey studies (1) One-time How much violence can you observe? Generally conducted on Children Ask teacher to measure the aggression in Children Ask children how much TV they watch

Lots of TV= lots of aggression (2) Over-time 1961: increased exposure=increased aggression 1971: increased exposure=increased aggression Being exposed to violence= aggressive behavior (causal nature) 3. Experiment Field experiments: outcomes based on previous experience Look at previous behavior, control predict Violent is related to aggressive Trying to find out what people are doing naturally Less control 3) Criticisms of the research Causal model cannot show relationship with certainty Why is there so much violence? – Easily produced – Easily understood G) Sexually Explicit Content ) Issues in sexually explicit content research: the basic categorization scheme, kinds of dependent variables, ethical concerns 1. The basic categorization scheme (1) Sexually violent a. Sex involves in movies (2) Nonviolent & degrading More or less can teach bad things for male and female relationship (3) Nonviolent & non-degrading Love, equal power between (4) Nudity It is not real about sex (5) Child pornography 2. Kinds of dependent variables (1) Arousal What people will be like when show something? (2) Beliefs What people think about the sexual content? (3) Attitudes (4) Behavior What’s your sexual activity?

Take safe or not? 3. Ethical concerns People do the content worries about 2) Effects of non-violent sexually explicit content: degrading and non-degrading content 3) Effects of sexual violence: what makes sexual violence different than other violence, typical sexual violence content types and exposure effects We only see it in media Typical sexual violence content types: the outcome 4) Criticisms of the research Hard to do this experiment H) Race in Crime News 1) Theoretical approaches to possible effects 2) Race and crime news: how various racial groups are depicted 3) Explaining differences in news coverage

I) Mass Media and Gender 1) Theoretical approaches to possible effects 2) Remember audience differences 3) Entertainment media and advertising: content patterns, the role of media producers, research on effects of exposure to body images J) Media Media and Health 1) Theoretical approaches to possible effects 2) Representations of mental disorders 3) Representations of physicians: current and past 4) Entertainment-Education 5) Media & Obesity: characteristics of common portrayals (of food and people), nutritional knowledge K) Public Opinion 1) Public opinion defined 2) Spiral of Silence ) Criticisms of Spiral of Silence We need more research, don’t work very well in the USA. L) Agenda Setting, Priming, ; Framing 1) The agenda setting effect: the public agenda, the media agenda, how the media communicate the importance of issues, the basic model 2) Agenda setting research: survey research at one time, survey research over time, and experiments 3) Conditions that affect when agenda setting happens: individual differences and issue obtrusiveness 4) Issue priming: the priming effect and research Use the issue to judge the leaders 5) Framing: the news framing effect

Does take in account what it said. M) Mass Media and Presidential Elections 1) Relationship between candidates and journalists 2) Patterson’s Game Schema Theory a) Hypothesis: general thesis and model b) Opposing approaches to elections: how journalists and voters approach elections c) Effects of this disparity d) Why this has occurred e) Strengths and weaknesses (criticisms) of the theory N) Effects of Internet Use 1) Internet use affects quality of interactions 2) Internet use replaces interpersonal communication 3) Internet use replaces traditional mass media

People don’t have recourses to do multiple things. You don’t know when someone watching you. Internet people can get really diversity information III. Discussion section content since examination #1 A) Sex Roles on Television and Stereotype Threat B) Video game and music video findings C) Voter turnout trends and campaigns Important thing to know who tends to vote. Education level, race graphics Why? Old people are home, and others. VEP is better than the VAP ———————– Learn about the candidates and decide how you to vote Watch the news and look for issue information about the conditdates

Want to decide how to vote I don’t want to become a police officer Viewer’s attitudes Viewer’s beliefs Performance of behavior Learning of behavior Exaggeration of feelings Arousal Examples used in beliefs and judgment about issues Recall of examples Acceptance of depicted behavior Reduced emotional response Perform Reduction of original feelings Various releases of feelings Exposure to others acting out feelings Predisposition reinforcement Aggressiveness Aggressiveness Social learning Aggressiveness Excitation transfer Aggressiveness Desensitization Fear