Communication and Language

At birth, babies lie on their back with their head to one side, also known as the Supine position. When they are on their front, they have their head to one side and tend to stick their bum out and tuck their knees in. When a baby is held up by a hand, their head drops back and they partly bend their arms and legs. Babies often have their hands tightly closed, clenched in a fist with their thumb tucked in under their fingers. Sensory Development: A baby will stare at bright shiny objects, and blink in response to the sound of a particular movement.

They recognise their carer’s voice, but can’t hear sounds that are too soft, and are startled by loud ones. Babies also open their eyes and quieten when they are held upright. They prefer to be held close, comforted, stroked or rocked and enjoy skin-to-skin contact. Reflexes: When anything is put into a baby’s mouth, they will automatically suck and attempt to swallow it. When just one side of the cheek or mouth is touched they will immediately turn their heads in search for food. If you place your finger or an object into the baby’s hand, it causes automatic grip, and pulling away will make the baby’s grasp even stronger.

When held upright, tilting forward, with their feet on a firm surface, babies will make stepping movements. This reflex is present from birth up to 2-3 months and will disappear until they are ready to walk later on. Cognitive: Babies will recognise when they are hungry, tired or upset, and will indicate this by crying. Communication and Language: Babies will cry to indicate a need that they want, but it is non-specific and you can never always tell what they are in need of. They synchronize actions to the sound of the carer’s voice, and often imitate people with things such as sticking their tongue out.

Babies will also make eye contact with people, and look towards the direction of a sound. Personal, Social and Emotional Development: They enjoy feeding and cuddling. Babies often imitate most facial expressions. They use total body movements to express happiness and pleasure, at times when being fed or bathed. Begin to smile in definite response to the carer at around 5-6 weeks. One month Physical Development: At one month, babies keep their head to one side when lying on their back (supine) with the arm and leg on the face side outstretched, the knees apart, and the soles of the feet turned inwards.

They are able to turn from the side to their back (vice versa). They can lift their heads briefly from prone position. When they are held in ventral suspension, they will keep the head in line with the body, and their hips will be semi-extended. Babies will start to open their hands more often rather than clenching them in a fist the majority of the time, and will also start to bring their fists towards their mouth. When pulled into a sitting position they will still show head lag. They begin to have jerky arm and leg movements which are uncontrolled.

Babies show interest of excitement which is visible through their facial expressions. They also open their hands to grasp them around and adult’s finger. Sensory Development: Babies at one month begin to repeat enjoyable movements, such as sucking their thumb. They coo, gurgle and smile when they are happy, and often show this when they recognise a primary carer. Communication and Language Development: At one month, babies start to make non-crying noises, such as cooing and gurgling. They learn to cry in more expressive ways.

They tend to interact with adults that are holding them face-to-face, by simultaneously looking, listening, vocalising, and moving their arms and legs excitedly. They can also imitate adults and others more specifically and clearly than before. Personal, Social and Emotional Development: By one month, babies often smile in response to an adult, and more specifically their primary carers. They will gaze attentively at the adult’s face when they are being fed. They will begin to show a particular temperament – for example, placid or excitable.

Babies at one month will turn and face the person who is speaking nearby them and concentrate on their mouth when they are speaking. The majority of babies at one month old will enjoy sucking, whether it’s their own thumb or somebody else’s, or even objects. Three Months Physical Development: At three months, babies can keep their head in a central position when lying supine. They can now lift both their head and their chest in the prone position, supporting themselves with their forearms. When they are held in ventral suspension, they will keep their head above the line of their body.

They can now control themselves more and have almost no head lag in the sitting position. When they are held, they can sit with their back straight. At three months, they begin to kick vigorously, with their legs either alternating or occasionally simultaneously. They can hold a rattle and other light objects for a brief time before dropping it. Sensory Development: Babies at three months can move their head deliberately to gaze around them, and are able to focus their eyes on the same point for a while. They can recognise their name and respond when it is being called.

They prefer moving objects to still ones and with their eyes they will follow something that is moving from side to side. Babies are also fascinated by any human face, and can begin to recognise their main carer’s face in a photograph. Cognitive Development: At this stage, a baby can understand the concept of cause and effect, for example, they will deliberately shake a rattle, knowing that it is going to make a noise. They take an increasing interest in their surrounding and often recognise where they are if they have been there many times before (i. e. bedroom), and also show an increasing interest in playthings.

Communication and Language Development: At about three months, babies can laugh and vocalise, with increasing tone and intensity. They become more conversational by cooing, gurgling or chuckling, often in response to a familiar person speaking them. They cry loudly to express a need, and smile when they are happy. Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Babies show enjoyment at caring routines, such as feeding and bath time. When being fed, they will stare at the carer’s face, rarely blinking. When the baby is being cuddled or shown loving attention they express their enjoyment and pleasure in a very obvious way.

Babies at three months also tend to stay awake for longer periods of time, especially through the night. Six Months Physical Development: At six months old, babies if lying on their stomach can roll over onto their backs, and if lying on the stomach can lift their head and chest, supporting themselves with their hands and arms. They can use their shoulder strength to pull themselves into a sitting position, and can bear almost all of their own bodyweight without support. Also, when held either standing or sitting, they can do so with a straight back.

Babies can lift one or both of their legs into a vertical position and grasp one of both feet with their hands. Babies can also move their arms and hold them up, indicating that they wish to be lifted or cuddled. They can reach and grab when a small toy is offered to them, and use their whole hand to pass a toy from one hand to the other hand. They will also poke small objects with their index fingers and explore small objects by putting them into their mouth. Sensory Development: Babies at six months old can adjust their position and manoeuvre themselves to see objects, and turn the wards the source when they hear sounds at ear level.

They’re also very visually alert, and are able to follow another child’s or an adult’s activities across the room with increased alertness. Cognitive Development: At around six months old, babies can understand the meaning of short simple words such as ‘bye-bye’, ‘mama’, or ‘dada’. The baby recognises the main carer’s voice and will turn immediately towards the sound upon hearing it. They are also able to show some understanding of the emotional state of the main carer’s voice, for example if they are happy, upset or angry.

They will also understand simple gestures such as ‘up’ and ‘down’, and know that raising their arms up in the air will suggest to an adult that they would like to be picked up. Communication and Language Development: At about six months old, a baby can make babbling noises spontaneously, using monosyllables firstly such as ‘ga, ga’, and then using double syllables, such as ‘goo, ga’, and then later on will build on this and learn how to combine more syllables. They will talk to themselves in a tuneful sing-song voice, and squeal with delight whenever they are happy or excited.

Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Babies will able to feed themselves by using their fingers at six months old, and not in a very controlled manner. They show distress when their mother leaves them room and are more wary of complete strangers and faces they do not recognise. Their awareness of other people’s feelings increases, for example they will cry when a mother cries, or laugh when somebody else nearby them laughs – this is called recognising an emotion which does not necessarily mean that they are feeling this emotion and shows that it is not always mutual.

Nine Months Physical Development: At nine months, babies can maintain a sitting position with a straight back, without being held occasionally or supported. However they can only sit unsupported for roughly 15 minutes. They can pull themselves up into a standing position, and when they do so they are also able to stand when holding onto furniture, but are unable to lower themselves back down and tend to simply fall backwards with a bump. At this stage, babies will begin

to explore new ways of moving around on the floor, such as rolling, wriggling, dragging themselves, and crawling on their stomach. They’re able to grasp objects between their fingers and thumb, known as a pincer grasp, and can manipulate toys by passing them from one hand to the other. However, they have not learned how to place toys and objects down yet and tend to just drop them rather than voluntarily putting it down. Cognitive Development: Babies can judge the size of an object that is up to two feet away from them, and are able to look in the right direction for a toy that has fallen.

They begin to understand their daily routine and are able to follow simple instructions such as ‘kiss mummy’. They can watch a toy being hidden and then look for it – this shows us that they know that an object can exist even when it is no longer in the child’s sight. Communication and Language Development: At nine months old, babies will use an increasing variety of intonation when babbling, and enjoy communication which involves sounds. They imitate sounds that an adult may make, like a cough or a ‘brrr’ noise. They almost completely understand and obey the command ‘no’.

Babies know general characteristics of their language and will not be able to respond to a foreign language and are aware that it is different. Personal, Social, and Emotional Development: Babies at nine months enjoy songs and action rhymes, and sometimes attempt to sing along themselves. They like to play alone for being but still prefer to be in a familiar adult or carer’s company. Show definite likes and dislikes at times such as bedtime and meal times. At this age they often need to have a comfort object, which tend to be things such as a teddy or a blanket, which then carer’s tend to name for the child.

They enjoy pointing at objects and still have the habit of outing everything to their mouth. They may also be able to drink from a cup if assisted. Twelve Months Physical Development: Babies at twelve months can rise to a sitting position from lying down, and can rise to standing without furniture or people, and are then able to stand alone for a few moments, and from then on they use the furniture to guide them and support them. On the floor, they can crawl on their hands and knees, bottom-shuffle, or use their hands and feet to move around the floor rapidly.

They can probably walk alone, with their feet wide apart and their arms raises to maintain balance, or can walk with one hand held by an adult. By twelve months, babies can pick up small objects with a fine pincer grasp, and show a preference for one hand over the other. Babies will drop and throw toys on purpose and look to see where they have landed. They are also able to properly build several bricks and arrange toys on the floor. At this age they can also release small objects into someone’s hand, and can hold a crayon and turn several pages of a book at once.

Sensory Development: At twelve months, babies can see almost as well as an adult and their visual memory is very good. They know and respond immediately to their own name and also recognise sounds and voices that are familiar to them, for example other family members. They will stroke, pat and turn objects in their hands and be able to recognise objects simply by touching them. The baby will also maybe enjoy watching tv, because of the sounds and images. At twelve months babies will also show preferences for particular foods, those of which they like and dislike.

Cognitive Development: Babies will use the trial-and-error method to establish what works and what does not with many objects. They can understand simple instructions such as ‘come to mummy’ and ‘say bye-bye’ Most babies at twelve months will both point and then look to where others point, which implies some understanding of how others see and think. Communication and Language Development: The majority of babies at twelve months old will be able to speak two to six (or more) recognisable words and show that they have some understanding of many other words.

They will be able to hand objects to adults when they are asked for them, and have some understanding of what to do and what not to do with certain objects (e. g. a teddy is for cuddling, and a hairbrush is for using, etc. ). Personal, Social and Emotional Development: At twelve months old babies are emotionally labile, which means they are likely to have fluctuating moods. They’re closely dependent upon an adult’s reassuring presence, are affectionate with familiar people and are still shy with strangers.

Babies enjoy socialising at mealtimes, and attempt to join in conversations whilst trying to self-feed. They can also wave goodbye to people, both spontaneously and on request. By this time they are also keen on helping the carer dress and wash them and play a larger role in feeding themselves. Eighteen Months Physical Development: At around eighteen months old, children know how to walk steadily and are able to stop themselves safely without suddenly falling over. They’re able to climb and pull themselves into adult chairs, and then turn around and sit safely.

They can kneel upright without support from an adult and are able to squat down to pick up, place or move an object. Are able to climb up and down stairs but only usually with support from an adult or a riling, in order to keep their balance, and have to put both feet onto the same step before moving onto the next one. When going down the stairs, they crawl backwards on their stomachs, and this can be done alone. Children of eighteen months have the ability to run steadily but cannot yet avoid obstacles in their path, such as a chair or another person.

They can also hold a pencil in their whole hand, one hold it more specifically between the thumb and the first two fingers (this is called the primitive tripod grip) and can then scribble with the pencil. This is done by gaining control of their wrist movements in order to manipulate objects, which allows them control over pencils and many other objects that they come across. They understand that tipping a bottle upside down will remove any small object from inside the bottle. Children of this age are also able to feed themselves more efficiently using a spoon. Sensory Development:

Children at eighteen months are now able to recognise familiar people at a distance rather than them being just several feet away. Realise now that when they look in a mirror it is their own reflection that they are seeing. They no longer have the habit of taking everything to their mouths to explore it and understand that not every object is meant to go into your mouth, and the habit of sucking everything also disappears. Cognitive Development: At eighteen months old, children have a dictionary of up to 6-40 recognisable words, and do understand many more than that.

They sometimes echo the last part of a sentence which somebody has said, rather than the whole sentence. Children of this age often start to use particular words accompanied by gestures, such as saying ‘pick up’ and then holding their arms up to the adult that they wish to pick them up. They also enjoy listening to music, songs and rhymes, and tend to try singing along. They learn the habit of over-extending words and tend to give them several meaning, for example they may use the word ‘dog’ to refer to every type of animal, rather than nust dogs. Personal, Social and Emotional Development:

At this age they start to remember where objects have come from, such as toys going back into the toy box and not the fridge. They still enjoy playing alone, but feel safer with a sibling or other familiar face in the room. Frequently alternate between clinging and resistance. They start to become more aware of the fact that other people around them get worried when they see the child trying to climb up onto a chair. When being read a rhyming story they can sometimes imitate and echo the words and then become able to repeat the rhyme without it having to be said to them as often.

Can sometimes be very eager to be independent and do a lot of things by themselves such as feeding themselves or getting dressed, accompanying this by ‘Me do it! ’ etc. Two Years Physical Development: At this age, children are now able to run safely without bumping into obstacles, and become more mobile on their feet. Two year olds can walk up and down the stairs safely but still tend to put both feet on each step before moving on. The children are confident when playing with larger toys now, and know how to throw a ball overarm but haven’t quite grasped how to catch it yet.

They can push and pull larger, wheeled toys, such as bikes, and can sit on a bike and push themselves forward with their feet but cannot yet use the pedals. They are steadier with a pencil/crayon and know how to draw circles, lines and dots, and by this time they have most likely chose their preferred drawing hand. Their concentration span will have increased which allows them to build a large tower of blocks without it falling over. By now the child can drink confidently from a cup with fewer spills, and can use a spoon more efficiently at meal times, making less mess.

Sensory development: By this age, the child will be able to recognise family members and other familiar people in photographs but still cannot recognise themselves in photographs, as they’ve only just grasped the concept of a mirror. They can also listen to adult conversations and show interest, often recognising many words. Cognitive Development: Have a keen interest in objects and people’s names. They also have a greater sense of empathy and provides comfort when they see a younger child (or sibling) crying. Communication and Language Development:

Two year old children often talk to themselves, but find that other people do not understand what they’re saying or what they’re trying to say. By this age, children can speak over 200 words, and find it easier to hear new words and remember what they are and the meaning of the word. Although they can only speak 200+ words, they recognise and understand many more, possible over 1,000. They will sometimes cut off the beginning or the ends of words, such as turning ‘bus’ into ‘us’ or saying ‘coat’ and ‘coa’ etc. They can understand and follow simple instructions, such as ‘Please bring me the book’.

Increasingly eager to speak more and have more conversations with people, even though they may not entirely understand everything that they’re saying to each other. Personal, Social and Emotion Development: Children of this age can now express how they feel with more clarity and meaning. They’re becoming more curious and aware of their environments and take more notice of their surroundings. They often get frustrated at themselves and others when they can’t express themselves, and when people don’t understand what they want or what they’re trying to say.

This can result in several tantrums Have become able to dress themselves without any help from an adult, although individual items of clothing may be difficult to master (shoes/shoelaces/zips etc. ). Children like to be helpful and volunteer often in helping others do things, but they tend to show refusal when the task conflicts with their own desires. Three Years Physical Development: At this age, children have established how to safely jump from their feet, or from a low step onto the ground. They’ve become more mobile and can now walk backwards and/or sideways.

If shown, they can stand and walk on their tiptoes and grasp how to stand on one foot for a short period of time. By now they will have often learned how to ride a tricycle using the pedals instead of pushing themselves forwards on the ground with their feet, but won’t yet be able to ride a bicycle without stabilisers. At three years old they’ve usually learned how to walk upstairs with one foot on each step instead of having to secure themselves with both feet on every step, they cannot however go downstairs one foot at a time yet.

They’ve now usually discovered how to catch a fairly large ball in their arms, and have a decent sense of special awareness. They can also copy patterns and build larger, steadier tower blocks. Are now able to do more with their hands and fingers, like drawing more specific things, such as the letters ‘T’, ‘V’ and ‘H’, and draw faces. They can also use scissors to cut paper but not very neatly, and can properly eat using a spoon and/or a fork Cognitive Development: Children at three years of age become fascinated in the concept of cause and effect, and many other things, and you will find that they ask the question ‘Why?

’ over and over again. They can sort and organise objects into specific categories, such as bricks going together, and cars going together, rather than keeping them all together and getting them muddled up. By this age, children know the difference between ‘one’ and ‘lots’, and know to say ‘cats’ instead of ‘cat’ if referring to more than one cat, rather than saying ‘cat’ when seeing more than one cat. They tend to be able to control their attention with little difficulty, and can choose to stop doing an activity and then later return to it without much difficulty in doing so. Communication and Language Development:

Children at the age of three can learn more than one language if they hear another language spoken around them as they grow, so if an English child lives in Wales, they may have English spoken around them in their own household, but when they are in public and at nursery they will most likely be surrounded by the Welsh language, and the child can often adapt to learning both but with difficulty separating the words from each language. Often children at this age still talk to themselves whilst playing with their toys, and usually what they’re saying is linked to the toys they’re playing with (i. e.

making their own conversations with dolls). They also enjoy listening to interesting music, and making their own by playing with instruments that are not too difficult to use. They also know personal pronouns and plurals by now and can give their own name and sex to people, and sometimes can specify their age. Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Three year old children tend to show affection and empathise with younger siblings, and often seem to forget about their own age and try to look after the child as if it were their own. They like to be very independent and do a number of things unaided.

They know how to use a toilet (or potty) by themselves and are often dry through the night (thought this depends on the child). Sometimes they can think about things from someone else’s view and understand what they do and why they do things. At this age, children’s imaginations grow rapidly and are more capable of pretending and imagining things, and from this can often develop fears and phobias, and they tend to fear things such as the dark and monsters. Children at this age are also more capable of sharing toys and taking it in turns when playing with other children or an adult, and are becoming more interested in making and having

friends. Four Years Physical Development: Children of four years will have now developed a good sense of balance and may also be able to walk steadily along a straight line, and can also run on their tiptoes. They can kick, catch, throw and bounce a ball properly, and are able to ride a tricycle with a moderate skill level and make sharp turns easily without losing balance and falling off. They find it easily to run up and down stairs putting just one foot on each step, and can climb trees and frames successfully and confidently.

With harder tasks such as writing and drawing, they can only draw basic letters, such as ‘X’, ‘V’, ‘T’, and ‘O’. They learn from watching adults and begin to hold the pencil/pen in an adult fashion, and are able to draw basic examples of people, often without any detail. Sensory Development: By this age, children can name and match primary colours (such as red and yellow) but they may sometimes get muddled up with similar colours like blue and purple. They will also listen along to stories with attention and concentration, and can join along with interactive activities in books. Cognitive Development:

From the age of four children understand past, present and the future, which enables them to talk about things that have happened and things that will happen, and they’ll know the difference. They can successfully sort objects into groups without much hesitation or difficulty. They also have quite good memory skills, and are able to remember where and when they visited somebody several months back, but may not be able to remember the specifics about the meet. Children will be able to give reasons for themselves or other people doing things, and can sometimes explain how or why something happened.

Sometimes, children of this age can confuse fact with fiction and not know how to recognise the difference. Communication and Language Development: Four years olds will be able to talk fluently, and will frequently ask questions (like ‘Why? ’, ‘When? ’, ‘How? ’ etc. ) and will then be able to understand the answer, if not too complex. They can tell long stories, both fact and fiction, but sometimes joining the two without realising, and they also understand and enjoy simple jokes. At this age they can often repeat nursery rhymes and songs, and be able to imitate what somebody says, and do so with few errors.

Eventually they may begin to recognise and understand patterns in the way which words are formed and can apply these into their speech consistently, for example, children may say ‘I runned’ or I goed’ instead of ‘I ran’ and ‘I went’. Personal, Social and Emotional Development: Children at the age of four can eat skilfully with a spoon and fork, not making a large amount of mess. They’ll be able to properly wash and dry their hands by themselves, dress and undress themselves and brush their teeth, without any support from an adult.

They will often show empathy and sensitivity towards others, regardless of age of relationship. Will usually show a sense of humour, both in general conversation with others and in activities. They like to be around other children and are keen on making friends, yet are also very independent and strong-willed when they want to be. Five Years Physical Development: Children’s agility sees a major increase from the age of five which allows them to do things such as running and dodging, climb, skipping and running lightly on their toes, all done successfully often without losing balance.

Their balance also improves, as some children at this age are able to ride a bike without stabilisers and can stand on one foot for up to 10 seconds or more. From the age of five, most children show a fairly good sense of co-ordination by playing ball games or dancing rhythmically to music. They can hop quite a long distance for their age, and can bend to touch their toes without bending their knees. By this age they can also use a lot of play equipment such as sliders, swings and climbing frames. Knives and forks aren’t much of a problem for children at this age either, but they may still need to have meat cut for them.

They will probably have good control over a pencil, pen and paintbrush, and can draw people with a head, a body, arms, legs and limited facial features. They can also copy the letters ‘V’, ‘T’, ‘H’, ‘O’, ‘X’, ‘L’, ‘A’, ‘C’, ‘U’ and ‘Y’, and can also copy a square and eventually a triangle. From this age they may also be able to copy and construct models using cubes and Lego, and can also complete basic jigsaw puzzles. Sensory Development: By the age of five children can match up to ten or twelve colours, possibly more. Cognitive Development:

At this age, they will begin to question people about abstract words, such as asking “What does ‘beyond’ mean? ”. They’ll be able to give their full name, age and address, sometimes their birthday, and can also recognise their own name and will sometimes attempt to write it themselves. They also become increasingly interested in reading and writing and will try to learn themselves as much as they can. Children will also be able to create some drawings with a good level of detail, for example, a house that has windows, doors, a roof and a chimney.

Communication and Language Development: From the age of five children will be able to talk about the present, future and the past with a good sense of time, knowing that there is a difference between each and knowing what that difference is. They will have become fluent in their speech and the majority of the time they will be grammatically correct when speaking. At this age children enjoy and understand jokes and riddles, and love to be read stories which they will sometimes remember and act out themselves, or with family/friends. Personal, Social and Emotional Development:

By this age, children can dress and undress themselves without assistance, but the majority often still need help tying their shoelaces. They’re able to amuse themselves for a longer period of time now, during play o0r doing things such as looking at a book or watching a DVD/TV. From the age of five, children will choose their own friends, show sympathy and a caring nature to those who are hurt, and also enjoy caring for pets. They also tend to have made their likes and dislikes very clear, some showing little logic, for example, a child may like their carrots cut into slices but not into rounds.

Six Years Physical Development: From the age of six, children are more confident in themselves when it comes to things such as jumping off of apparatus at school and playing on other play equipment. They can hop with a good level of balance, run and jump, and a lot have the strength to kick a football up to 18 feet. Many can ride a two-wheeled bike, but not all six year olds can do this without stabilisers. Their accuracy in throwing and catching balls increases, and they can also skip and synchronise it to music. They’ll be able to construct limited cube towers that are pretty much straight.

Also, by this age, they can hold a pen/pencil in a mature manner and can write down their full name without much difficulty. They’re able to write letters and numbers that are a similar size to each other, and may also start to write very simple stories. Cognitive Development: Children at the age of six start to think more logically, and can hold one more than one point of view at a time. They will begin to establish the difference between reality and fantasy, for example, knowing that a monster in a TV show does not really exist, but they still find it fascinating.