Valanis teenage births to Native Americans, Eskimos, Aleution Islanders, and Hawaiians. She also stated there is a higher rate of complications and their infants are born with low birth rate or prematurely. This age group has been hard to teach because of the physiological and psychological characteristics. The past has proved that the schools are reluctant to teach sex and contraception in health education classes, (Valanis, 1999). The National Survey of Family Growth showed that in 1988, that the age group of 15 – 17 year olds, who were sexually active, increased from 33% to 38% in 1988.
In the 1996 U. S. Bureau of the Consensus, It showed that there were 200,000 births to age 12 – 17 year old girls, nearly 12,220 of those births were to 14 year old girls are younger. Valanis stated that it is important for patient to decide whether or not to keep baby, give baby up for adoption, or have an abortion. The threats listed for the mother and infant are poor housing, malnutrition, and lack of health care. Valanis also stated that there is an increased rate of mortality, fetal death, and low birth rate associated with births of unmarried women, (Valanis, 1999).
Some of the other factors stated in “Epidemiology in Health Care,” are the spacing between children and the timing of pregnancy. The National Center for Health Statistics in 1990, documented that the timing and spacing of 24 months or longer than 48 months caused low birth rate. The National Center for Health Statistics stated that mother has less time to restore body to health when births are Consequences of teen pregnancy to the mother, infant, and community3 less than 24 months apart. The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and Surgeon General, in 1979 issued warnings on smoking and drinking during pregnancy.
The Surgeon General showed that smoking slows down fetal growth, lowers birth rate, and increases the chance of stillbirth. The Surgeon General showed that the use of alcohol caused low birth rate, birth defects, and mental retardation. Valanis stated on page 159 that those in 1994 only 50% of white mothers and 42% of black women 15 years and younger received prenatal care. Young women age 15 years and younger are more likely to have toxemia, and if reproductive system not mature, then they have fetopelvic disproportion, (Valanis, 1999).
Some anomalies that have contributed to infant mortality are child morbidity, disability, and years lost. These have included congenital anomaly of heart, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, genitourinary system, and the circulatory system. According to the U. S. Preventive Service Task Force for pregnant women what is needed is monitoring for pregnant women, continuous monitoring of laboring woman, and good nutrition during pregnancy. The federally funded program (WIC) Women, Infant, and Children supplemental feeding program has improved health status of pregnant women.
The improvement of better intrapartum and neonatal care has improved infant outcome. Methods such as ultrasound and amniocentesis have helped to determine gestational age, causes of vaginal bleeding, and the use of amniocentesis has helped to better diagnose problems with fetus, (Valanis 1999). Teen pregnancy has had negative effects on the teen, infant, and the community. There have been high mortality rates to infant and teenage mother. There has Consequences of teen pregnancy to mother4 been improvement in prenatal and postpartum programs since the 1990’s, but improvement still needs to be made for the black population.