Consumer Behaviuor

This is because of cultural effect on Hinduism peoples and mostly they do not purchase beef from butcher shop. In this assignment, I have explained factors of conformity likely to be observed in consumer’s are- in social and cultural context, self- image, Perception, motivation, learning and attitude. Each case I have described separately in conformity factors part with given relevant examples. In cultural context, consumer’s choices change depends on culture and societal community. Self-image deals with prestige issue, lifestyle, designation and self confidence for purchasing products.

Motivation is the force that compels the buyers to make purchase of particular motivational products. Motivation refers to the processes that cause buyers to conduct as they do. Perception is related to the selection of product on basic of its smell, sound, sights, and colours. Learning is the factor in which knowledge in advance of product takes place before buying objects. Positive and negative aspects of product determine the attitude of consumers. Product is useful or harmful compels the buyers to change their attitude.

The need to understand buyers behaviour is to generate good dealing intellect if companies want to know their buyers requirements and as a contribution into the marketing strategy. Buyer’s reaction may frequently be the decisive test of whether or not a marketing strategy will be successful. Literature Review: Thomas J. Reynolds in their book “Understanding Consumer Making: The Means- End Approach to Marketing and Advertising Strategy” writes about why do marketers need to know about consumer decision making? Understanding customer’s judgment making requires watchful attention to the context in which the judgment occurs. Context can be understood at micro (immediate) and macro levels. All behaviors take place in some definite context, which contains the direct physical surroundings and the social environment (existence and power of other people, together with friends, family, and sales people). Specific behaviors are also predisposed by broader contextual factors, such as one’s financial situation, cultural pressures, and social responsibilities.

Marketers should effort to know the most important contextual influences on the consumer. Understanding consumer choice making is a two-step process. First, the promotion problem of concern must be structured as a precise decision made by consumers. Second, executives need to know precisely how customers go about making that choice” (Thomas J. Reynolds et al, 2001). “At first look, this might appear annoying to the budding customer psychologist; the stimulus situation that impacts upon the buyer looks to be unmanageably multifaceted.

However, it is essential to identify that the world in which customers behave is, in reality, tremendously compound, filled with continual commercials, attractive packaging, and confusing alternatives”[Brian Mullen et al, 1990] “The buyer propensity to observe consists of the direct observation of other customers, the not direct observation of other customers or both. Direct observation occurs by inspection the actual procure behaviour of other shoppers (e. g. McGrath and Otnes, 1995: Price et al. , 1989) and indirect observation involves the analysis of trace confirmation of shopping behaviour.

For example, some travelers recognize good restaurants by the number of semi-trucks in the parking lot and customers unfamiliar with recent movie release may rent a movie based on the movie with the fewest remaining DVDs or tapes relation to the quantity displayed, believing that this trace evidence entails movie popularity. Likely all customers observe and consider others purchasing activities in their personal buying, but the extent of the behaviour likely varies by individual depending on various consumer traits and by context, such as is short of of knowledge.

Very little research, however, has examined customers propensity to survey, even though researchers have studied reference groups from a range of perspectives, (i. e. Kivetz and Simonson, 2000)” [Penny M. Simpson et al, 2008]. “People are bombarded everyday with millions of advertisements, endorsements, and product proposals. All of these efforts to convince the personage to purchase a particular product because it will take some pleasure to their life. The task of the marketer is to set up a marketing strategy that will be victorious in this goal.

Many of the ads on television and in magazines place highlighting on beautiful people and cool settings and connect them with the benefits that one product offers over a different. Many corporations pay out millions of dollars hiring marketing research firms to collect data and determine which method of persuasion works better to sell their products. One more approach to advertising may be to first decide an improved understanding of why definite processes are more successful in believing people to procure products.

This understanding may furnish marketing researchers clearer approaching into what products will work with each influence technique” [Amanda E. Rusich, 2008] “Two concepts of innovations are operationalized and connected to the new product acceptance process. Multi-item scales intended to gauge buyer self-determining judgment making (i. e. , the level to which a person makes advance decisions separately of the communicated knowledge of others) and buyer novelty looking for (i. e. the wish to search for out new product information) are developed and experienced on adult customers. Tests of the hypothesized effects of these traits show that consumer novelty seeking is positively related to early stages of the adoption process (i. e. , actualized novelty seeking and new product awareness), whereas buyer self-governing judgment making is only associated with later stages of the adoption process (i. e. , new product trial)”[William O. Bearden et al, 1995].

Consumer Behaviour, Attitude and Propensity to Conform (Critically Description): According to the American Marketing Association, Consumer Behavior is defined as “The dynamic interaction of affect and cognition, behavior, and environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspects of their lives” [Sara Stumpf, 1998] As small changes in percentages of sell make almost a fair profit, that means small change in buyers behaviour changes more sale. Tools that help marketers become more adjusted to their buyers are relationship marketing and database marketing.

Relationship marketing is helpful to connection between buyers and brands. “In the mid of -1990s Sheth and Parvatiyar directly linked relationship marketing to consumer behaviour. Critical to their argument explaining why consumer relationship is important to reducing choice. Innovation suppliers need to keep relationship with consumers to become success” (Isabelle Szmigin, 2003). Buyer’s relationships with products are because of self concept attachment, interdependence and love. In self concept attachment, the product helps to set up the user’s identity.

In case of love, the product elicits bonds of warmth, passion, or other strong emotion. Positivist approach emphasises the lack of involvement of knowledge and the purchaser as a logical choice maker whereas Interpretivism stresses the subjective meaning of the buyers’ personal knowledge and the thought that any behaviour is subject to numerous interpretations rather than one single justification. [pic] (Source: from Laurel A. Hudson and Julie L. Ozanne, ‘Alternative Ways of Seeking Knowledge in Consumer Research’, Journal of Consumer Research 14 (March 1988): 508–21. Buyers attitude towards the Country-of-origin of products play vital role in customers product purchasing. The factors like social and cultural forces, product features, product price and many more related to product origin of country which changes the buyer’s attitude while purchasing a product. Best example is Sony Electronics products of made in Japan and made in China. Consumer’s gives most preference to Japan electronics products compared to China produced Sony product. It’s because of buyers trust on quality of electronics products of ‘made in Japan’

The buyer’s process of decision making for products and services is as shown in Fig-1, it starts from any need of buyers, then customer starts to search information. After collecting information, he purchases as per his requirement considering all factors. Consumption of product and analysis after utilization takes place to get more conformity in next time purchasing. [pic] (Fig- 1, Consumer Decision Making Process, (Roger D. Backwell et al. , 2007, p 70)) Factors of Conformity: Different factors of conformity in buyers decision making process can better explained in contexts of social and cultural, self- image, motivation and learning.

Let’s discuss all the factors in details. The Social and Cultural Context: Culture can be views as the shared memory of the social order (mutual implications, practices, norms and manners among members). The choice of consumption can’t be recognized except in view of the societal and cultural context in which they are grown up. Culture structures the prism through which individual’s analyse goods and seeks to create wisdom of their own and other people’s behaviour. A buyer’s culture decides the general right of ways she or he attaches to dissimilar actions and goods and the hit or stoppage of specific products and services. The boundaries that culture sets on behaviour are called norms, which are simply rules that specify or prohibit certain behaviours in specific situation. Norms are derived from cultural values or widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. Violation of cultural norms results in sanctions or penalties ranging from mild social disapproval to banishment from the group” (Del I Hawkins et al. , 2007). Culture plays a vital role in society, celebrations, work and many more places to perform any particular task. Products sometime used in ritual behaviour, such as foods eaten on certain holidays( like hot dogs and apple pie on the fourth of July) or as part of special religious ceremonies ( such as a bar mitzvah or first communications). Occasionally, products become so much of a symbol in a society that they become icons” (Roger D. Backwell et al. , 2007). A ritual is a set of compound, representative behaviours, which take place in a fixed series and tend to be repeated at regular intervals. Rituals are associated to various expenditure actions, which take place in well-liked culture, e. g. acation observances, present giving and grooming. Rite of route is a particular type of ritual, which contains a alteration from one position to another. These routes classically involve the need to gain products and services called ritual artefacts. [pic] (Figure 2, Cultural Values gives rise to norms, Del I Hawkins et al, 2007) Social and cultural factors plays significant role in conformity of purchasing in buyers. Without considering cultural norms, purchasing process can’t proceeds which commonly observed in customers. Self- Image: Every person has unique life, rather than an ingredient of groups.

A comparatively fresh idea that regards human and their connection to society. Admits the concept that the self is an object to be spoiled. “Consumer self- confidence is the degree to which a personage feels competent and guaranteed with respect to his or her marketplace choices and behaviours (Bearden et al, 2001). Customers with small self- confidence in their own capability to make pleasing procure decisions are likely to employ other resources, counting other customers, as additional supply of information” [Penny M. Simpson et al, 2008].

Every consumer takes decision of purchasing as per his image and lifestyle. To make themselves as making attraction and imagining the others reaction towards self. Reading of our identity by others and the image of own in others context shows conformity while purchasing. The levels of purchasing considering self image are individual level, group level, family level and community level. In individual self- image, thinks about personal belongings in self designation. Examples of individual self image are clothing, perfumes, car etc. In case of family level includes buyer’s house and its furnishing.

In case of group level, connection to definite social groups can be considered as part of self and in case of community level consideration of the locality or township from where buyer belongs. The case of prestige issue plays important role while purchasing object. What other thinks about us and what should we purchase to keep my own self- image on higher level, this thing always peep into mind while purchasing. The good example of self- image is car purchasing. Everybody from middle or rich class person think his status of working and purchases car as per image, lifestyle, and purpose.

A manager thinks that his own car must costly and should from higher car brands like Mercedes, BMW etc. Common person purchases car for family purpose and choose brand as per his confidence and image. Sexual identity i. e. whether buyer if male or female is a key part of a person’s self concept. People frequently conform to their culture’s prospects about how individuals of their gender should take step. “Each society generates a set of prospects concerning the behaviours appropriate for males and females and communicates these. Marketing has previously been defined by gentleman so is still subjugated by male standards.

Woman tasks in social alters, such as the raise in females in the place of work has led to alter in the way women are considered by men, the mode they regard themselves, and the goods they decide to purchase. Male function in the ‘new man’ is authorized to be more compassionate and to have nearer relations with other men. The more responsive side of their nature is developing and becoming a matter for marketers. Morals of good looks for both men and women may contains physical characteristics as well as clothing ways, hairstyles, make-up, skin tenor, and body form”[ Michel R. Solomon, 2007].

The self images are in different forms, it may into private self, inner and outer, and community self forms. In self image, beliefs human grabs their attributes and analysis the qualities about what they want. Self esteem and real & ideal selves are the altered components of self impression. Self esteem is nothing but the optimistically of a consumers self concept. Self esteem advertising tries to adjust manufactured goods approaches by inspiring positive views about the self. The idea of self image generates from the concept of how he or she would like to be with any purchased article.

Depending on self prestige image in society, all consumers tries to buy as better for himself of herself so that nobody can spread tarnish on his positionality. The self image is really important factor while purchasing to make conformity of buying of high or low quality products depends on the economical situation and self image of persons. Motivation: “Motivation is energizing forces that activate behaviours. A motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulate and compels consumer behaviour response and provide specific direction to that response” (Del I Hawkins et al. 2007, page 392). In case of motivation, it causes to human behaves as they do. Motivation takes place when a requirement is stimulated that the buyer desires to make happy. As the requirement once has been set in motion, a position of stress exists that constrained the buyer to attempt to remove or decrease the requirement. Understanding motivation is to recognize why customers act what they act. The best example of motivation as factor of conformity is the water purchasing by consumers for home and official use purpose. As we know that water gets from municipal agencies is not expensive.

But consumers buys bottle water which is too much expensive than municipal water which gets in free. So what is reason behind it so that a consumer pays money for a thing which is available in free cost. This is because of three reasons and these are health, safety and status. “Perrier” is a lot advertised brand who used to deliver bulk water to home and offices in 5- gallon containers and which make half the market. To attract and to make conformity of buyers, marketers job is produce the goods and service which is useful for consumers to reduce the stress.

The stress or tension is nothing but a difference between the buyer’s current position and some ideal position. The conflicts in motivations are consists of positively appreciated goals and staying away from negative goals. Positively appreciated goals is one in which buyers are motivated to move towards the goal and will look for out goods that will be influential in attaining it. Keeping away from negative goals is one more in which buyers are motivated to stay away from a negative result structuring their procures or utilization actions. “Fulfilling one need often comes at the expenses of another need.

Money spent satisfying one need leaves less for the rest. The time allocated to one need means there’s less time for fulfilling others. This trade offs in our ability to satisfy various needs cause motivational conflicts” (Roger D. Backwell et al. , 2007). Motivational conflicts are divided in three types, i. e. approach- approach, approach- avoidance, and avoidance- avoidance. When buyers have to make decision in between two or more advantages options then approach-approach conflicts engages. The case in point for approach- approach conflict is trading between new equipment and taking sail.

When buyers have to make decision between two or more undesirable options, then an avoidance- avoidance conflict engages. The case in point of avoidance- avoidance conflicts is choices between mowing the work area and clean-up the pool. Approach- avoidance conflicts engages when selected course of act has both optimistic and harmful consequences. The case in point of approach- avoidance is the cigarette smoking, in which smoking gives pleasure and on the other hand it is hazardous for health. “Other motivational approaches have focused on specific needs and their ramifications for behaviour.

For example, individuals with high need for achievement strongly value personal accomplishment. They place a premium on products and services that signify success because these consumption items provide feedback about the realisation of their goals. These consumers are good prospects for products that provide evidence of their achievement. One study of working women found that those who were high in achievement motivation were more likely to choose clothing they considered business like, and less likely to be interested in apparel that accentuated their feminity”( Michel R.

Solomon, 2007). Other needs related to consumer behaviour are classified in need for accomplishment, need for relationship, need for matchlessness and need for control. Henry Murray has described a set of twenty psychogenic wants that result in unambiguous behaviours. “One categorization of person motivation that has received visible notice in buyer psychology is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This approach supposes that person motivations are given in a hierarchy from lower stage needs to higher stage needs.

These needs, correspondingly, are: physiological needs, security needs, love and care needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. The lower level needs are considered first than higher needs. ” [Brian Mullen et al, 1990]. The drawback of Maslow’s hierarchy of need is that it is cultural bound and it is not easy to accomplish the ultimate state in the hierarchy. Perception: Perception is the process by which physical feelings such as sights, noises, and odours are selected, controlled, and understood. Is the perception of consumer is to buy a particular product or not?

Buyer’s perception decides the conformity of purchasing of any article. The following fig-3 shows the information processing model which consists of four main steps i. e. exposure, attention, interpretation and memory. The first three stages exposure, attention, and interpretation constitute perception. [pic] (Fig-3, Information Processing for Consumer Decision Making, Del I Hawkins et al, 2007, p-312) The steps of a perceptual method are Primitive categorization, cue check, confirmation check and confirmation completion. Primitive categorization is one in which the essential description of a stimulus are cut off.

In case of cue check the features are evaluated in preparation for the choice of a plan. Confirmation check consists in which the plan is particular then last stage is confirmation completion in which a choice is made as to what the stimulus is. Consumers are frequently in a condition of sensory burden, uncovered to too much information and are not capable or unwilling to procedure all of the information at their clearance. Perceptual selectivity takes place when buyers attend to only a little segment of the stimuli that they are exposed to. Learning: “Learning is a change in behaviour that is caused by experience.

Learning can occur through simple associations between a stimulus and a response or via a complex series of cognitive activities. Learning is an outgoing process. Our knowledge about the world is revised constantly as we are exposed to new stimuli, and as we receive ongoing feedback that allows us to modify our behaviour when we find ourselves in similar situations at a later time”( Michel R. Solomon, 2007). Learning is process of modifying own consumers thinking before start purchasing. “Learning is any change in the content or organization of long term memory or behaviour.

Thus, learning is the result of information processing. Information processing may be conscious and deliberate in high involvement situations. Learning may occur in either a high involvement or low involvement situation” (Del I Hawkins et al, 2007). In high involvement learning, consumers are forced to procedure or learn a material. The best example of high involvement of learning is buying a laptop. [pic] (Fig-4, Learning, Source- Del I Hawkins et al, 2007) Learning process can be done by classical conditioning or operant conditioning.

Cognitive learning happens as an outcome of inner mental processes. For example, observational learning occurs when a buyer performing an actions as an outcome of considering somebody else performing it and being rewarded for it. This perception outlooks people as difficulty solvers who vigorously use information from the world around them to master their surroundings. Attitude: Attitude is a tendency to evaluate an object optimistically or harmfully. Attitude has consist of three components and these are beliefs, affects, and behavioural intentions. An attitude is an enduring organization of motivational, emotional perceptual and cognitive process with respect to some aspects of our environment. It is learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable of unfavorable manner with respect to given object” (Del I Hawkins et al, 2007). Consumer’s attitudes itself decide about any object purchasing with consideration of positive and negative effect of products. Attitude give out four functions for persons and these are- awareness functions, utilitarian function, value expressing function and ego- defensive function.

The ABC model, affect, behaviour and cognition emphasises the interrelationships between perceptive, emotion, and doing. By using cognitive consistency and cognitive dissonance, attitude theories can better understand. The conformity among consumer’s feelings, thoughts and behaviour can be better understood by Cognitive consistency theories, and are enthused to preserve consistency among these. In cognitive dissonance the buyers are tackled with circumstances where there is some disagreement between their attitudes and behaviours.

In this way attitude of buyers plays vital role in conformity of purchasing of products. The example of attitude in consumers can explain with smoking and Marlboro cigarettes. As everybody know that cigarette smoking is dangerous for health and this caution always printed on cigarette packets, but men and women smokes without thinking its side effect. In advertisement, Marlboro shows to regular guys instead of professional models. American Cancer Society has started the fight against smoking to change the people’s attitude and to stop smoking.

Simply, attitude of peoples indicates whether product should buy or not in terms of its use or harmfulness. Mood is very important factor of attitude. Conformity of purchasing depends on mood also. When mood is exciting then consumer doesn’t think too much for buying purpose and purchases products. “Attitude may also depend on feeling. A number of studies have found that people will evaluate products more favorable when they are in good mood than when they are not. Participant’s mood states are peripheral or irrelevant to the products and its performance.

Feeling includes mood states, are far richer in nature than simply whether they are good or bad” (Roger D. Backwell et al. , 2007). Attitude makes consumer to make decision related to good or bad. And mood plays vital role in case of attitude. Conclusion: Different factors of conformity like societal and cultural factors, self- image, motivation etc determines the choice making while buying any articles. Cognitive psychology which deals with the thinking, perception and learning of persons plays vital role in conformity and the extent of decision making of any customers as per their own status. Depend upon area r region in which persons is growing up makes him or her ability of purchasing a products which is more popular in their respected area. Product which is fit in all respects like in attribution, personality, durability, colours, type of packing etc. are players of conformity of choosing for buyers. Industrialization is increasing rapidly and all companies are competing to penetrate maximum market share and trying to grab as many as possible customer through their products. Marketing communication mix factors are very crucial to enable to get more information to customers and to make more conformity in their mind about products.