curriculum of European schools in the eighteenth century, in America

As “modern” languages began to enter the curriculum of European schools in the eighteenth century, they were taught using the same basic procedures that were used for teaching Latin. Textbooks consisted of statements of abstract grammar rules, lists of vocabulary, and sentences for translation. Speaking the foreign language was not the goal, and oral practice was limited to students reading aloud the sentences they had translated. These sentences were constructed to illustrate the grammatical system of the language and consequently bore no relation to the language of real communication.

By the nineteenth century, this approach based on the study of Latin had become the standard way of studying foreign language in schools. A typical textbook in the mid-nineteenth century thus consisted of chapters or lessons organized around grammar points. Each grammar point was listed, rules on its use were explained, and it was illustrated by sample sentences. This approach to foreign language teaching became known as the Grammar-Translation Method. Principle of The Grammar-Translation Method 1.

The goal of foreign language study is to learn a language in order to read its literature or in order to benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that results from foreign language study. 2. Reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening. 3. Vocabulary selection is based on solely on the reading texts used, and words are taught through bilingual words lists, dictionary study, and memorization. 4. The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. 5. Grammar is taught deductively. . Translation interprets the words and phrases of the foreign languages in the best possible manner. 7. The phraseology and the idiom of the target language can best be assimilated in the process of interpretation. 8. The structures of the foreign languages are best learnt when compared and contrast with those of mother tongue. 9. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. It is very important that students get the correct answer. 10. Learning is facilitated through attention to similarities between the target language and the native language. Advantages 1.

An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure I think the exercises that are given after translation is very beneficial and accurate for grammar learning. 1. Few demands on teachers. Also, It is practical and easy to implement. In this method, teacher only deals with organization and implementation of exercises. So this means teacher has not a lot to do. In other word; this method does not require lots of thing but a passage of literature text and a few exercises, it is pretty easy to carry out. 2. Least stressful for students Students prepare themselves for exercises and memorization of vocabulary and grammar rules.

Disadvantages 1. The Grammar Translation Method can make the language learning experience uninspiring and boring. All the classes can be taught in the same way so after some time students may get bored. Also I think that language teaching should be done very different ways in order to inspire students. 2. The Grammar Translation Method can leave the students with a sense of disappointment when they travel to countries where the studied language is used because they can’t understand what people say and have difficulty in expressing themselves at the most basic level. . This method neither approaches nor encourages the students’ communicative (speaking & listening skills) competence. Reading and writing are the major focus of this method so speaking and listening skill remain in the shadow of writing and reading. 4.

Language is learned by conscious memorization of grammar rules and vocabulary. Nowadays memorization isn’t highly regarded; internalization through exposure, experience and use are preferred. Language learning needs to be beyond memorization because I think language should be learnt with experiences. . Lack of communication between students. The teacher explains, translates, conducts practice, and corrects mistakes, and learners interact with the teacher, not with each other. That’s because, students can easily make what they learnt permanent with interactions between them.