The skull consists of 28 bones, 22 of which form the framework of the head and provide protection for the brain, eyes, and ears; six are ear bones. With the exception of the lower jaw bone and the ear bones, all skull bones are joined together and fixed in one position. The seams where they join are known as sutures. The bones of the skull are classified as either cranial or facial bones. Cranial Bones. The cranium is formed by eight major bones, most of which are in pairs.
The frontal bone forms the forehead and the roof of each orbit (or eye socket) and the nasal cavity. The parietal bones form the roof of the skull. The temporal bones help form the sides and base of the skull and also house the auditory and hearing organs. The occipital bone forms part of the base and back of the skull, and contains a large hole called the foramen magnum. This opening permits passage of the spinal cord from the cranium into the spinal column. The sphenoid bones are wedged between several other bones in the anterior portion of the skull.
Ways to maintain this is to always dedicate appropriate instruments to there dedicated areas on not to get then crossed. 15) Using chemicals or other hazardous substances at work can put people’s health at risk, so the law requires employers to control exposure to hazardous substances to prevent ill health. They have to protect both employees and others who may be exposed by complying with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health. Your employer has a duty under the law to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, your health, safety and welfare at work.
Your employer must consult you or your safety representative on matters relating to your health and safety at work, including: ¦ any change which may substantially affect your health and safety at work, e. g. in procedures, equipment or ways of working; ¦ the employer’s arrangements for getting competent people to help him/her satisfy health and safety laws; ¦ the information you have to be given on the likely risks and dangers arising from your work, measures to reduce or get rid of these risks and what you should do if you have to deal with a risk or danger; ¦ the planning of health and safety; and the health and safety consequences of introducing new technology. 16) •Computer central for dentist and nurse. •Spittoon in reach for the nurse and the patient. •Lighting in reach of the dentist •Zoning areas •Nurse instruments and medicament in reach for the nurse •dentists instruments and medicament in reach for the nurse When working along side then dentist, the dentist sits one side and the nurse sits the other. 17) When working along side the operator the dental nurse must be prepared for the treatment laying out all equipment and medicaments the operator may need.
The DN must have a well stocked surgery to avoid leaving to operator unassisted at any time. Working efficiently with the operator is important to provide a smooth treatment for the patient. It also minimises the risk of accidents that may occur in the surgery. (e. g. needle stick injuries) 18) The suction plays a important role in the dental surgery, during treatment it provides the operator a clear operating field, the dental nurse can use it to help retraction this is also done to provide a clear operating field.
The suction also aides the patient during treatment as it aspirates water that is needed, making it more comfortable for them. The aspirating tips are disposable and must be disposed of in a clinical waste bag. The tips must also be changed in between each patient to prevent cross infection. There are different typed of aspirating tips. 1) Usually the bleu tips are used by the dental nurse during treatment as it is attached to a high powered suction compressor. 2)Saliva ejectors, these are made of a thinner plastic than is able to bend easily, these tips are usually held by the patient to suction access water .
The are particularly good if the patient has a severe gag reflex as they are in control. 3) Metal saliva ejectors are also held by the patient but they are not flexible, they are made from stainless steal and has a barrier so the thee patients tongue is protected. At the end of each working day, the suctions pipes must be flushed through with a disinfectant that will kill all bacteria. 19) If insufficient retraction is provided by the dental nurse or the operator, there is a great risk of tissue damage, this includes, tissue damage of the tongue, cheek, and gums.
Methods of providing efficient retraction can be done by the nurse retracting with gloved fingers, suction tips, dental mirror heads or rubber dams. 20) The workers role when assisting with haemostasis can include efficient suction before preparing gauze. The nurse will change gloves to prevent cross infection, select required instruments, this will include, gauze and scissors. The dental nurse will then cut the required amount needed, and roll it up tightly, the dental nurse will then either pass efficiently to the operator, or place tightly were required. 21)