Gradually develops ability to hold up own head. Makes movements with arms and legs which gradually become more controlled. Rolls over from front to back, from back to front. When lying on tummy becomes able to lift first head and then chest, supporting self with forearms and then straight arms. Watches and explores hands and feet, e. g. when lying on back lifts legs into vertical position and grasps feet. Reaches out for, touches and begins to hold objects. Explores objects with mouth, often picking up an object and holding it to the mouth. Enjoys the company of others and seeks contact with others from birth.
Gazes at faces and copies facial movements. e. g. sticking out tongue, opening mouth and widening eyes. Responds when talked to, for example, moves arms and legs, changes facial expression, moves body and makes mouth movements. Recognises and is most responsive to main carer’s voice: face brightens, activity increases when familiar carer appears. Responds to what carer is paying attention to, e. g. following their gaze. Likes cuddles and being held: calms, snuggles in, smiles, gazes at carer’s face or strokes carer’s skin. Turns toward a familiar sound then locates range of sounds with accuracy.
Listens to, distinguishes and responds to intonations and sounds of voices. Quietens or alerts to the sound of speech. Looks intently at a person talking, but stops responding if speaker turns away. Listens to familiar sounds, words, or finger plays. 1 – 2 years Walks alone and stands on tiptoe Climbs on furniture and begins to run Builds a tower of six or more blocks Empties objects from a container Becomes aware of his or her identity as a separate individual May become defiant Becomes interested in playing with other children Separation anxiety begins to fade Speaks about 50 words
Links two words together Uses some adjectives (big, happy) Speaks clearly enough for parents to understand some of the words Begins to play make-believe Begins to sort objects by shape and colour Scribbles Finds hidden objects 2 – 3 years Walks up and down stairs, alternating feet Kicks, climbs, runs and pedals a tricycle Builds a tower of nine or more blocks Manipulates small objects and turns book pages one at a time Imitates parents and playmates Takes turns Expresses affection openly Easily separates from parents Speaks 250 to 500 or more words Speaks in three-and four-word sentences
Uses pronouns (I, you, we, they) and some plurals States first name Asks “why” questions Correctly names some colours Copies a circle Understands the concepts of same and different 3 – 4 years Stands on one foot for at least five seconds Throws ball overhand, kicks ball forward and catches bounced ball most of the time Dresses and undresses Uses scissors Cooperates with playmates Tries to solve problems May have a best friend Becomes more independent Answers simple questions Speaks in complete sentences Uses prepositions (under, beside, in front) Speaks clearly enough for strangers to understand
Becomes involved in more complex imaginary play Prints some capital letters Draws a person with two to four body parts Understands the concepts of morning, afternoon and night 4 – 5 years Stands on one foot for at least 10 seconds Hops, swings and somersaults May learn to ride a bike and swim Brushes own teeth and cares for other personal needs Wants to be like friends Follows rules Understands gender Wants to do things alone Understands rhyming Uses compound and complex sentences Uses future tense States full name and address Uses imagination to create stories Correctly counts 10 or more objects
Copies a triangle and other geometric patterns Understands the concepts of time and sequential order. 6 years Jumps over rope 25cm high Learning to skip with rope Tie own shoes Eager for fresh experiences More demanding and stubborn, less sociable Joining a ‘gang’ maybe important May be quarrelsome with friends Needs to succeed as failing too often leads to poor self esteem Reading skills developing well Drawings more precise and detailed Figure may be drawn if profile Can describe how one object differs from another Mathematical skills developing, may use symbols instead of concrete objects May write independently years Hand-eye coordination is well developed Has good balance Can execute simple gymnastic movements, such as somersaults Skills constantly improving More dexterity and precision in all areas Desires to be perfect and is quite self-critical Worries more; may have low self-confidence Tends to complain; has strong emotional reactions Understands the difference between right and wrong Takes direction well; needs punishment only rarely Avoids and withdraws from adults Is a better loser and less likely to place blame Waits for her turn in activities Starts to feel guilt and shame
Read independently and with increasing fluency longer and less familiar texts Spell with increasing accuracy and confidence, drawing on word recognition and knowledge of word structure, and spelling patterns including common inflections and use of double letters Moving towards abstract thought Draw together ideas and information from across a whole text, using simple signposts in the text Read whole books on their own, choosing and justifying selections Engage with books through exploring and enacting interpretation 8 -12 years Movements well coordinated Physical skills improving Takes part in team games Drawings become more complex
Friendship becomes more important Independence increasing More understand to self Concentration improves Able to read fluently May think scientifically Able to play complex games such as chess 12 – 19 years Hormonal changes Puberty Skin changes Growth spurts Body hair develops Girl; menstruates; breasts develop, hips broaden Boy; facial hair develops; voice deepens, growth of penis and testes Skills develops depending on interest and practice, for example play a musical instrument Adolescents start to think about the future and if motivated will use all their intellectual ability to achieve their educational goals