ecological and social

Unlike the male characters in the novel, females disclose their intimate connection with nature and they believe that destroying nature takes their only source of refuge away from them. As such, they take initiatives not only to preserve nature but also to prevent encroachments such as the one brought by Kumaran. These women characters who include Dinakaran and Ponmani, view the nature and land as their source of livelihood. They consider Aathi their soul as well as heart and believe that Kumaran’s strategies pose a threat to the community. Joseph (41) explains that;

The characters sensed that certain schemes and clandestine activities were underway. Strangers came, assessed, assented or dissented,and went away same came and tarried in the tent and roamed the mangrove forests. But why, and what it was all about,remained wicker. An air of uncertainty and anxiety pervaded.

The female characters in the novel are against the enterprises that focus on changing the way of life in Aathi with the premise of improving the way of life. Dinakaran and Ponmani opposed the construction of an edifice of gold for Thampuran, the thatched shrine that Kumaran believed needed improvement to embrace modernity. Critically, Kumaran and other men in the societyflocci pendnot only nature but also all the activities undertaken by women. They have, therefore, created laws and army to justify their ill intentions for their selfish gain