Communicating Effectively In Spoken English In Selected Social Contexts. Communication is a process of transmitting information from origin to recipients where the information is required to be understood, reacted and responded by the recipients. According to Carl Rogers (1952), real communication occured when we understand what we listen, feel the ideas and attitude expressed from other person’s point of view and when we achieve the frame of reference in regard to the things a speaker is talking about. There are three types of communication according to Camp ; Satterwhite (2002), i. e. ral, written and non-verbal communication. Since this paper is to discuss on communicating effectively in spoken English, oral communication is the right type of communication to be discussed. In oral communication, information, messages, thoughts and ideas are conveyed via spoken language. Basically this takes place during face-to-face conversation, meetings, voice mail messages, teleconferencing, oral presentations and public speaking. Very often, spoken messages are sent very quickly and feedback received almost immediately. However, there is little or no chance to reflect on what is said.
In order to communicate effectively, oral communication needs to combine with non-verbal communication also known as body language. A certain look or gesture can speak thousand words. According to Camp ; Satterwhite (2002), non-verbal communication can be a very powerful form of communication and often includes appearance, posture, eye contact, nervousness, grooming and dressing. Non-verbal communication can be very powerful in supporting what you say. For example, when you thank somebody, a grateful look will reinforce your feelings very strongly.
Therefore, in face-to-face interactions, oral and non-verbal communications must come hand-in-hand in order to communicate effectively. Since this paper is to discuss on communicating effectively in spoken English in selected social contexts, I would like to stress on the important status of English globally as well as locally and benefits of oral communication in English. Before I elaborate more, I would like to discuss about oral communication first. Oral communication can either help of hinder our ability to influence or bond with family and friends, and affect our performance at work base on how we use the skills.
Many corporate organizations and professional positions require people who are able to speak well and convincingly. Teachers, professors, doctors, sales person, corporate personnel, trainers, public speaker and politicians make full use of this skills extensively and widely. Therefore, mastering the oral communication skills help you achieve your goals. Oral communication requires two crucial skills that are listening and speaking skills. According to Camp ; Satterwhite (2002), oral communication involves both speaker and listener. Effective communication occurred when the message being delivered is clearly understood.
It can be achieve when the sender of the message has good speaking skills and the receiver has good listening skills. In order to master listening skill, one must know what is listening first. Listening is to hear something mindfully. Effective listening requires you to listen intently and pay close attention to the speaker. If you don’t pay attention or miss part of the message, you won’t be able understand the whole picture and what been said by the speaker. According to Devito (2009), effective listening comprises five elements that are receiving, understanding, remembering, evaluating and responding.
There are two types of listening – passive and active. The difference between them is the level of involvement of the listener. In passive listening, we listen passively at a low level of concentration and absorb the minimum number of words. Very often we remember and understand very little of what has been said. We may respond to the speaker’s voice by smiling and nodding but do not pay full attention to the speaker. This kind of listening happens normally when we are on holiday or relaxing. While active listening involves a higher level of concentration.
We listen actively at school, university, work place and when we need to obtain information. There are several techniques that we can practice in order to improve our listening skills. Firstly, we need to paraphrase the speaker’s message and ideas using simpler words without changing the meaning. Secondly, we need to identify our weaknesses wether we are hearing impaired, mentally unprepared or easily distrated or not. Finally, We need to prepare ourselves mentally and physically to listen using various listening strategies such as Memory Helper (Camp ; Satterwhite, 2002).
Now I am going to discuss on speaking skills. This skill we use most in oral communication. Wood (2009) lists three principles that explain oral communication and how they affect us. While Camp ; Satterwhite (2002) gave the fouth principle that is concerning speech quality. The principles involves interpretation of symbol create meaning, communication rules, punctuation affects meaning and voice attributes. Next, let we discuss why we need to communicate effectively in this world. Possessing good oral skills will make us more effective communicator as we will be able to influence and persuade others.
This will benificial us personall, socially and professionally. We need good oral communication skills in building relationships. This oral skills enable us to share information, thoughts, feelings, needs and intentions among family, friends, colleagues and associates. As for example, if you are a good listener, you also tend to win friends as most people regard someone who listens to their problems, fears, joys, successes and secrets as a true friend. Besides, mastering oral communication skills enable us to achieve knowledge acquisition.
As for example as a student, the learning process often requires us to have an inquiring mind. The good oral skill will help us acquire knowledge more effectively especially when we are able to ask questions, express opinions and ideas, and summarize information. Providing such feedback enable our lecturers, teachers or instructors to gauge how well we understand what has been taught. Good listening skills will also help us comprehend course content better. Futhermore, the reason why we should have better oral communication skills are for developing workplace competencies.
Take a job finder as an example. One needs to have good oral communication skills in order to be accepted for any post. Speaking is an important skill when interviewing or training new employees, participating in social-business discussions and giving public presentations or speeches. While listening is vital for both employers and employees, where employers need to listen to the suggestions, complaints and feelings of your employees. In return, employees need to listen to the instructions, demands and advice given by his superiors at work place.
Take a look at another example. Professional people depend a lot on oral communication skills when they engage in different activities. Educationists deliver lectures and hold tutorials, discussions, forums and seminars. Business people use oral communication skills a great deal when they interact with customers and suppliers, make reports or give explanations, participate in meetings and hold informal discussions with employers and employees. This is the reason why communicating effectiely is very important in everyday’s life. As matter of act, English is spoken all around the globe. So it is a compulsory for all of us to master English so that we won’t be left behind in globalization. In any situation or purpose, communicating effectively in spoken English can be achieved when both speaker and listener play their roles and responsibilities very well. Effective communication take place when the speaker is clear about his own views and interpretation of ideas and experiences. Communication with ourselves must take place before we can communicate effectively with others.
The roles and responsibilities of speakers and listeners include the speaker having to evaluate the communication situation and avoid miscommunication, give and receive feedback, and maintain goodwill. Besides, as an effective communicator, we need to fulfill our own needs as well as the needs of the receiver of the message. In addition, good interpersonal skills are useful when dealing with people as they help to build goodwill. To have such good and effective communication, we can make use of interpersonal skills such as make You-statement, have a positive attitude, be a good listener, keep things confidential and be considerate.