The main instrument was a questionnaire that was distributed to the students. The researchers collected 205 completed questionnaires out of a total of 300. Four factors were chosen as independent variables namely: reaction and satisfaction, learning outcome and achievement, familiarity with online learning technology, and participation and interaction. It was found that the effectiveness of the e-learning system was significantly affected by reaction and satisfaction, learning outcome and achievement, and familiarity with online learning technology.
The participation and interaction factor had no apparent effect on the effectiveness of the e-learning system. Therefore, it is recommended that higher learning institutions interested in introducing e-learning should focus on students’ reaction and satisfaction towards the system. E-learning should focus on learning outcomes and achievement. It is also recommended that institutions first look into the issue of familiarity with online learning technology among students before introducing the e-learning system so as to determine whether students are comfortable with the online learning tools.
Keywords: e-learning effectiveness, higher learning institution, online learning technology, learning outcome ABSTRAK Kajian ini dijalankan untuk melihat faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keberkesanan penggunaan sistem e-pembelajaran di pusat pengajian tinggi. Pelajar-pelajar dipilih secara rambang daripada kalangan mereka yang mengambil kursus diploma dan ijazah untuk melihat dan menilai keberkesanan penggunaan system e-pembelajaran dalam proses pembelajaran mereka. Data adalah dalam bentuk soalan soal selidik yang diedarkan kepada pelajar-pelajar yang terlibat.
Daripada 300 set soalan soal selidik yang diedarkan hanya 205 set soalan sahaja yang diterima dan dijawab oleh pelajar. Empat faktor dipilih sebagai pemboleh ubah/variabel terhadap kajian ini iaitu tindak balas dan kepuasan, hasil pembelajaran dan pencapaian, kebiasaan dengan teknologi pembelajaran dalam talian serta penyertaan dan penglibatan. Didapati bahawa keberkesanan e-pembelajaran sangat memberi kesan terhadap tindak balas dan kepuasan, hasil pembelajaran dan pencapaian dan kebiasaan pelajar dengan teknologi pembelajaran dalam talian.
Variabel penyertaan dan penglibatan tidak memberi kesan yang ketara terhadap sistem e-pembelajaran kepada pelajar. Oleh itu, adalah dicadangkan agar pusat pengajian tinggi yang berminat untuk memperkenalkan sistem epembelajaran ini menumpukan kepada aspek tindak balas dan kepuasan pelajar. E-pembelajaran perlu memberi tumpuan terhadap hasil-hasil pembelajaran dan pencapaian pelajar. Juga dicadangkan agar setiap institusi tersebut mengkaji isu-isu yang menjadi kebiasaan kepada pelajar dalam menggunakan teknologi e-pembelajaran sebelum memperkenalkan e-pembelajaran bagi menilai sama ada pelajar selesa dengan sistem e-pembelajaran.
Kata kunci: Keberkesanan e-pembelajaran, institusi pengajian tinggi, teknologi pembelajaran atas talian, hasil pembelajaran I NTRODUCTION E-learning is a common practice today and one can easily find advertisements on the web on earning a degree online. This is possible in today’s Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) era because almost everyone is connected through a cyber world. In this cyber world context, everyone is closely connected to one another via computers.
Today, e-learning is easily adopted by any individual or organisations. E-learning is the use of internet technology to enhance user knowledge and performance (Ruiz, Mintzer and Leipzing 2006). E-learning allows learners direct access to materials such as electronic journal articles or electronic books easily and efficiently in a controlled environment. Besides that, learners can use e-learning as a support tool in their studies, whereby learners can use e-learning to reduce the time they spend in traditional 2 Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia 35(2) classrooms, studying from home or the their workplace. E-learning also provides a networking syatem for groups of learners or between learners and instructors together in real-time electronic discussions such as through chat rooms that enable discussion, conversation and questions at anytime and anywhere. The Opinion Research Corporation (2000) reports that 54 percent respondents believe that college courses offered via the Internet is the future of higher education.
The study also found that 32 percent of respondents agreed to take courses through the internet rather than attending a traditional classroom. Another 53 percent of respondents said that the biggest benefit of taking courses online was the ability to work from home, while 19 percent stated that time is saved from not having to commute to work. In this respect, e-learning programs are considered as one of the learning methods that enhances learners’ knowledge and skills.
As far as the e-learning scenario in Malaysia is concerned, a recent survey conducted by Multimedia University (MMU 2003) revealed that (1) E-learning will become an important field with more than 50 percent of top academic management, staff/academics and students/ clients accepting the concept, (2) Sixty-five percent of institutions provide some form of training or instruction utilising aspects of the online or e-learning format, (3) Only 2 percent use e-learning at the advanced level, (4) 19 percent are highly involved, (5) 16 percent are exploring the possibility, while (6) 63 percent are at the implementation level.
There are many issues regarding the effectiveness of e-learning. Is an e-learning program able to provide an effective way of delivering knowledge? Is peer to peer interaction well supported in e-learning environments? Do learners feel that they are learning anything from the elearning programs? How do learners rate the quality and effectiveness of their e-learning programs? To what extent are the learners satisfied with the online learning experience provided by e-learning?
Do these-learning programs lead to a greater way of improving the learners’ learning progress? What do learners think about the e-learning courses they took in terms of course content, layout, language, graphics, and animation technology? To effectively implement e-learning programs for learners, educators or trainers need to integrate testing and assessment tools throughout the learning process. It is important to understand the effectiveness of this innovative and advanced-learning method in many related learning areas.
This study attempted to answer the following research questions: “What are the factors that affect the effectiveness of e-learning”? Without this understanding, it is difficult for the learners to know the value of e-learning. Therefore, a study of the effectiveness of an e-learning program is important to assess the extent to which e-learning is effective for learners and to determine any added value for the educational field.
LITERATURE REVIEW The introduction of new computing technology is now widely adopted throughout the world for storing, keeping, searching and gathering information and records, constructing knowledge, performing simulations to develop knowledge base, skills, distance learning, and global collaboration for lifelong learning and work. The power of emerging computing technologies has indeed transformed our lives. These new tools have enabled powerful computing technologies to run and manage business processes more efficiently, boost customer satisfaction and improve business performance.
Advanced and innovative computing technologies have impacted our lives and have changed the learning process. For instance, educators use of internet technologies in online teaching and learning has enabled learners to receive and interact via these educational materials and resources, and thus allow teachers and students to interact in ways that previously may have not been possible (Kirkwood 2001). Some studies have indicated that the use of technology has an effect on all aspects of teaching and learning.
When educators integrate technology into a lesson, it requires new learning approaches to the curriculum in that it develops the ability to look at and explore information in new ways (Cohen 2001). Moreover, some studies show that technology can help by allowing learners to take a more active role in their learning through different instructional modes or methods (Kussmaul and Dunn 1996). Dewar and Whittington (2000) stated that new technologies provide opportunities for creating learning environments that enhance learner learning and achievement. However, inappropriate use of technology can result in ineffective learning.