How did Bismarck’s system of alliances help maintain peace? Bismarck’s system of alliances was the goal of keeping France isolated and not to have any military allies. Also, he wanted to keep Russia and Austria-Hungary from going to war. France was still bitter over the losing Alsace-Lorraine from the Franco-Prussian War. Both Russia and Austria-Hungary desired territory from the weakening Ottoman Empire, which was the Balkans. The Three Emperors League was an alliance with Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. This was against radical movements. With the Congress of Berlin, Austria got Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Balkan states ended up becoming independent. The Triple Alliance was Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy was a defensive alliance protection against Russia. The Reinsurance Treaty was between Germany and Russia. If one of them were to be attacked, they promised neutrality. Germany was concerned about war between Austria and Russia. Plus France and Russia being allies. William II ended this treaty and dismissed Bismarck. 2) What were the reasons for Britain and Germany’s love-hate relationship? Between the 1700 and 1800’s, Germany and Britain had a common enemy, which was France.
Their racials ties of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic people as well. The rivalry was of course power. Germany was on the rise to power. Economic wise was the colonie and the world market. For the military component, Germany expanded their navy with battleships. Great Britain is known for its naval supremacy and it was threatened by Germany. It ended up being a naval race between the two nations. For the political factors, Great Britain wanted alliances with France, Russia, and the United States. At the Algeciras Conference, Germany attempted to break the friendship between Great Britain and France.
They failed and brought them closer. 3) Why was the Moroccan crisis of 1905 a turning point in European diplomacy? France and Great Britain agreed over North Africa. Britain got full control over Egypt and France got full control over Morocco. The Anglo-French Entente was closer relations between France and England. Germany as always wanted to try and break the treaty between France and England. Germany didn’t act diplomatically though. They were now viewed as an international bully. Great Britain, France, Russia, and the United States saw Germany as a common threat. These four nations became closer.
Austria became Germany’s main ally as well. 4) What impact did the Congress of Berlin (1878) have on the Balkan area? What were the origins and causes of the “Third Balkan War”? With the Congress of Berlin, Austria-Hungary had power over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Romania and Serbia won independence. Bulgaria won a somewhat say in their government. Austria-Hungary and Russia wanted to control the Balkans. With nationalism, Serbia wanted to expand by gaining Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary ended up annexing both of their wanted territories. Serbians were furious.
The First and Second Balkan Wars consisted of fight within Serbia, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire about territorial gains. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was on a visit to Sarajevo and ended up getting assassinated by Serbians. It was the Black Hand which was a Serbian terrorist group. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia which was the start of the Third Balkan War. Austria-Hungary wanted to stop nationalism that threatened their empire. 5) Which of the major powers do you believe were most responsible and least responsible for the war? Explain. Austria-Hungary had imperialism in the Balkans and declared war on Serbia.
They were also Germany’s main ally. Russia had total support of Serbia. They allied with Serbia and France. All three of them mobilized against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany wrote a “blank check” to Austria-Hungary. William II’s poor control of international diplomacy lead to the Moroccan crisis and naval build up. In addition, Germany invaded France through Belgium. France became permanently mad at Germany and seeked for revenge. They ended up allying with Russia. This meant the support from Russia meant also from Serbia. Great Britain had a naval build up and entered an alliance with France.
This disrupted the balance of power and made it point toward France now. 6) What impact did the war have on the economy and the people at home? How cooperative was the population? The economy changed from a free market system to a state run economy. The government organized price and wage controls, quotas, production and what to be produced. The food and resources vital for war had to be rationed. Due to nationalism, the population was supportive of the “total war” efforts of their governments, in the beginning of the war. 7) Did the war have any effect on the power of organized labor? On women in society?
The labor unions cooperated with governments on production and wages. The government gave back by allowing labor leaders in policy making councils. The unions were accepted in the European countries as legitimate organizations. Women were now in demand for labor because men were off at war. Women became a more visible part in society and this gave a boost for the modern women’s rights movement. 8) What evidence is there that the strain of the war was beginning to take its toll on the home front in Russia, Austria, France, and Germany by 1916? Russia had a lot of war casualties. The population was vital of the czar’s leadership.
Nicholas II went to the front to lead the troops. While he was away, Alexandra and Rasputin were in charge. Austria’s chief minister was assassinated. Frances Joseph died as well. The Czechs and Yugoslavs called for autonomous democracies. France and their troops refused to fight. There were labor strikes during the war. Clemenceau ruled practically as a dictator. Germany had Karl Liebknecht, who was a radical social leader, spoke out against war. This had the radicals to protest. There was an expanding anti-war legislation in the Reichstag and massive break strikes in Berlin. 9) What were the reasons for the Russian Revolution in March 1917?
Who were the Soviets? The war demoralized troops which led to mass desertions. Many peasant soldiers returned home and angry with weapons. Also the war produced massive food shortages and there were bread riots in St. Petersburg. These riots spread like wildfire. Nicholas II ended up stepping down and leaving Russia. The Soviet and the provisional government ended up trying to rule Russia. The social classes were going for political liberty. The upper middle class were expecting better results from the war. Workers demanded better wages and good. Peasants asked for land reform. The Soviets was a political organization in St.
They were against the czar’s government and operated separately from the Kerensky’s provisional government. For example, Army Order #1. 10) What were the reasons for the Bolshevik victory in the civil war? The democracy ended up turning into an anarchy. Not one individual group or person had clear dominance to take power. Lenin and Trotsky were talented leaders who competed for power. Trotsky created an organized and centralized army that was able to outperform the whites. While Lenin was able to appeal to the urban workers and soldiers who were for socialism, successfully.
The Bolsheviks ruled the center of Russia while the white were scattered out over thousands of miles. There was a secret police and the use of terror. The “White Armies” were decentralized and didn’t organize movements. They didn’t have a clear political objective that rallied the enemies of the Bolsheviks into an united front. Foreign military aid was too late and little and rallied nationalistic Russian against the whites. 11) What happened to the Austro-Hungarian and Turkish empires after 1918? Austria-Hungary became Austria. They lost land to Italy which was Tyrol.
They became independent states which were Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Hungary. Austria ended up becoming a small, militarily insignificant European nation. The Ottoman Empire ended up becoming Turkey. France got Lebanon and Syria. While Britain received Iraq and Palestine. The empire was diminished and Turkey’s borders were the Anatolian peninsula and the Bosporus. Both of these nations were once dominant in power and now were put down to secondary status, which is ironic. 12) What were the goals of Wilson, Lloyd George, and Clemenceau at the Versailles Peace Conference? President Wilson of the United States created the Fourteen Points.
He wanted national self determinations, rights of small countries, and League of Nations. David Lloyd George was focused on restoring Germany to a reasonable economic strength. He perceived that Germany could be a balance to the communist Russia. Georges Clemenceau seeked revenge against Germany for the two invasions in the last forty years. He wanted to create a buffer state between France and Germany. He wanted protection against future attacks and permanent demilitarization of Germany. Germany had to pay large war reparations and it weakened them, yet gave France a chance to rebuild.