how non-human organisms to communicate and interact

Preparation Outline Purpose At the end of my presentation, the audience will come to realize how majestic the ant kingdom is and how the inner works of their cities resemble that of humans. Introduction Most of you have probably heard or read about the amazing capabilities of non-human organisms to communicate and interact with one another. But have any of you really seen the interworks of such species’ societies? One specific organism of leaf cutter ants may surprise you, as you will witness the astonishing similarities they share with our society. Central Idea

An underground city formed by the leafcutter ant, which includes extensive highways, paths, and gardens, was found covered beneath the earth in Brazil. Preview We are better informed of the doings of this super organism by first understanding the steps that were taken to excavate the underground ant city, then realizing what was found, and finally, comparing the megalopolis to the human equivalence of a city. Body Outline I. The steps taken to excavate the underground ant city A. The scientists’ first job was to measure the flow and composition of air in the plumbing system of the ducts. . A machine was used to sample the air in order to figure out which chimney does what. Each vent was then marked yellow indicating the expulsion of carbon dioxide or red indicating the inflows of fresh air. B. Next, the scientists had to dig into the system to discover where the ducts lead and what is driving the circulation of air. C. Finally, the vents were filled with cement. 2. The amount of cement that they had to use was incredible. It took them three days until ten tonnes of cement vanished into the tubes. 3. A month later, after the cement dried, they began the excavation.

It took weeks to uncover the secret megalopolis of the ants. II. What was found D. The Grass Cutter ants have two types of chambers. One where they dispose of garden garbage. These pits are important for keeping the city clean. This garbage material also helps drive the ventilation system. The chambers used for vegetation purposes make up the garden chambers. The temperature difference between the garbage and garden chambers creates a flow of air forcing air filled with carbon dioxide upward, while sucking fresh air in. E. After weeks of excavation, the scientists were able to see the structure of the city-state. . Underground highways are formed connecting the main chambers, and off the main routes are side roads. The different paths lead to the fungus gardens used for vegetation and garbage pits. Tunnels are designed to insure good ventilation and provide shortest transportation routes. III. After the excavation, we are able to see how ants relate to humans F. According to the scientists, this underground miracle is the equivalent of building the Great Wall of China. 5. Everything looks like an architect has designed it. 6. The complex structure covers over 500 square meters and travels 26 feet below the earth.

G. While building this, the colony of ants moved 40 tonnes of soil, each load weighing four times as much as the worker ant and was carried over half a mile to the surface. Conclusion In conclusion, after going through the necessary procedures needed to excavate the ant city, the scientists discovered a whole new world. They then later realized this to be quite similar to that of the human society and truly a wonder of the world. Reference (2012). Scientists excavate underground ant city in Brazil. Xinhuanet, Retrieved from http://big5. xinhuanet. com/gate/big5/news. xinhuanet. com/english/sci/2012-02/06