The term ‘motivation’ is derived from the word ‘motive’ which influences the behavior of individuals. Motives are the expression of needs of a human being. Motivation is a process of getting the needs of the people realized to induce them to work for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. Motivation is a behavioral psychological concept. It seeks to understand why people behave the way they do. The intention is to produce goal-oriented behavior. It aims at influencing good result and arises from within the individual.
The inner feeling balances the perception of an individual and satisfaction of his needs that influence the direction, volume, behavior limitation and efforts of an individual. Hence motivation is an inducement of inner feeling of an individual. It cannot be forced upon from the outside. According to Steers and Porter (1991), there are two ways to view motivation. The traditional way is to define motivation as a process of directing (stimulating) people to action in order to accomplish a desired goal.
Based on this definition, motivation is the function supervisors perform to get their employees to achieve goals and objectives. The second view looks at individual motivation. Such motivation represents an unsatisfied need that creates a state of tension (disequilibrium), causing the individual to move in a goal-directed pattern towards need-satisfaction and equilibrium. The goal of the behavior is to reduce tension by achieving a goal that will satisfy that need. Both approaches to the study of motivation are motivation.
Harmer (2001) defines motivation as some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something. This significantly refers to an individual’s desire and willingness to take action towards the accomplishment of a given task. Invariably, people’s behavior at work is controlled by their intrinsic motives that characterize the work as well as the working environment. The manager’s job becomes one of identifying the right chord to play to influence each group member to achieve the group goals.
However, the study of motivation addresses the distinctiveness of each individual, for each individual has a number of motivators (Robert and Hunt, 1991). Armstrong(1998) considers motivation as ‘why people at work behave in the way they do in terms of their efforts and the direction they are taking and what the organization can do to encourage people to apply their efforts and abilities in ways that will further the achievement of the organization’s goals as well as satisfying their own needs. Cole (2002) relates this to human behavior and defines it as ‘a process in which people choose between alternative forms of behavior in order to achieve personal goals’. According to Spector (1997:2) job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their job. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. As is generally assessed, is an attitudinal variable. In this context, job satisfaction can be considered as a global feeling about the job or as a related constellation of attitudes about various aspects or facets of the job.
The management dilemma in many organizations in today’s fast paced technological environment is how managers can improve the motivation of employees, so that companies employ and retain a fulfilled work force that contributes optimally to organizational stakeholders. Essentially, the questions that must be answered by this study are: What makes some employees perform better than others? What makes some employees seem better satisfied in their jobs than others? In what ways can management improve the motivation of their employees?
All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustained high levels of performance through people. This means that, there is the need to give close attention to how individuals can best be motivated either through such means as incentives, rewards, leadership and importantly the work they do and the organizational context within which they carry out that work. This is very important because according to Reece and Brandt (1996:234) they identified the importance of the emotional factor at work.
Emotions play a critical role in the success of every organization, yet many people in key decision- making positions (leaders) with outstanding technical and financial skills fail to understand the important role emotions play in a work setting. In part, the problem can be traced to leadership training that emphasizes that doing business is a purely rational or logical process. These authors further emphasize that the cost of ignoring the emotional factor at work can be costly to companies in the form of lawsuits, resignation and death of valuable employees, etc.
PROBLEM STATEMENT There are many and varied reasons why managers are continually under distress in many organizations. Resources both human and material as well as technology are but a few issues confronting managers daily. More importantly, the human aspect has questions that have perplexed and fascinated managers for a long time. These questions include: What makes some employees perform better than others? What makes some employees seem better satisfied in their jobs than others? How can we improve the motivation and overall job satisfaction of our employees?
There are no easy answers to these questions, yet they plague managers in their day to day running of organizations. The reality is that the level of employee motivation affects their morale, performance and overall job satisfaction PROBLEM ANALYSIS DIAGRAM Employee Commitment Increases Profit Margins Effect of Motivation Increases Performance Job Satisfaction RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. To what extent does motivation lead to increases in job satisfaction? 2. To what extent does motivation lead to increases in performance? 3.
Is there any relationship between increases in profit margins and job satisfaction? OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY GENERAL OBJECTIVES To establish the impact of motivation on job satisfaction and to propose alternative strategy or recommendation to enhance job satisfaction at the workplace. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To examine whether motivation leads to an increase job satisfaction. 2. To assess whether motivation leads to an increase in performance. 3. To investigate whether motivation is the factor to increases in profit margin. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The fundamental purpose of this research is to determine the main causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction amongst a group of employees within the frame work of the Herzberg study. This research is important or beneficial because: 1. It will broaden management’s insight that motivation plays a key role in the overall job satisfaction of employees. 2. It will enable managers to understand the factors and processes that are internal and external to the individual employee in an organization that have an effect in his/her behavior and performance. 3.
It will also assist managers to devise strategies that sustain a highly motivated workforce so that the end result is that all stakeholders are content with the performance of the enterprise. 4. By understanding motivational issues behind employees, managers can systematically develop strategies to deal with motivational problems. RESEARCH DESIGN As part of our data collection method, we intend using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The research design we are going to use will be based on the descriptive design. For a comprehensive insight into our methodology kindly see the third chapter.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter looks at the background of the study, objectives of the study, the research hypothesis and significance of the study. Chapter two reviews existing literature in the area of the study, while chapter three discusses the methodology applied in collecting and analyzing data. Methodology is followed by the processing and analysis of the data as well as the findings from the study. The final chapter covers conclusions, recommendation and references. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 INTRODUCTION
Understanding the theory and application of motivation is important in managing human resources for organizational success. This is more critical today due to the ever changing business environment organizations find themselves or operate. The relationship between job satisfaction, motivation, and efficiency or productivity is very important in the business industry as well as in personal life. Long term research has found that the single greatest predictor of longevity is work satisfaction. Work is one third to one half of a persons’ lifetime, and if frustrated the mental and physical effects are very costly.
Job characteristics including skill variety, task identity, and task significance lead to psychological conditions in which in turn leads to increased motivation, performance and job satisfaction. It is important to investigate this area in order to determine how much of an effect does overall job satisfaction, motivation and productivity has on each other. It is also important to research the relationship between motivation and job satisfactions because it can assist businesses in designing and manufacturing an environment to maximize productivity and efficiency while keeping their employees satisfied.
Finally, it is significant to study motivation and job satisfaction because it can help people better understand what job will best suit them to be motivated and satisfied while making a difference in the productivity level. As part of the research into establishing a correlation between motivation and job satisfaction, this chapter seeks to capture the relevant literature and concepts of motivation and job satisfaction. 2. 2 MOTIVATION THEORIES The fundamental approaches to motivation are underpinned by motivation theory.
The most influential theories are classified as: content theories and process theories. Content theory: It focuses on the content of motivation and the nature of needs. It states that motivation is essentially about taking action to satisfy needs, and identifies the main needs that influence behavior that is those specific things that actually motivates the individual at the work place. Process theory: In process theory, the emphasis is on the psychological processes or forces that affect people’s perceptions of their working environment and the ways in which they interpret and understand it.
According to Guest (1992a) in Armstrong M, process theory provides a much more relevant approach to motivation than the theories of Maslow and Hertzberg, which, he suggests, have been shown by extensive research to be wrong. Process or cognitive theory can certainly be more useful to managers than needs theory because it provides more realistic guidance on motivation techniques. MASLOW’S NEEDS THEORY The most famous need classification was formulated by Maslow (1954) in Armstrong M, a human relationist, argued that people are motivated to satisfy five need levels.
Among these are: Physiological need, this talk about the basic needs of life which are need for oxygen, food, water, clothing, shelter and sex that present basic issues of survival and biological function. In organizations these needs are generally satisfied by adequate wages and work environment itself, which provides restrooms, adequate lighting, comfortable temperatures and ventilation. Safety, the need for protection against danger and the deprivation of physiological needs. Social, the need for love, affection and acceptance.
A manager can help satisfy these needs by allowing social interaction and making employees feel like part of a team or work group. Esteem needs actually comprises two different sets of needs: the need for a positive self image and self respect and the need for recognition and respect from others. A manager can help address these needs by providing various extrinsic symbols of accomplishment; the manager can provide challenging job assignments and opportunities for the employees to feel a sense of accomplishment.
Self-fulfillment (self- actualization), the need to develop potentialities and skills to become what one believes he is capable of becoming. The self actualization needs are perhaps the most difficult for a manager to address. In fact, it can be argued that these needs must be met entirely from within the individual. But a manager can help by promoting a culture wherein self- actualization is possible. For instance, a manager could give employees a chance to participate in decision making about their work and opportunity to learn new skills.
Maslow (1954) in Armstrong M, suggests that the five needs categories constitute a hierarchy. An individual is motivated first and foremost to satisfy physiological needs. As long as they remain unsatisfied, the individual is motivated only to fulfill them. When satisfaction of physiological needs is achieved, they cease to act as primary motivational factors and the individual moves up with the hierarchy and become concerned with security needs. This process continues until the individual reaches the self actualization level.
Maslow’s concept of the need hierarchy has a certain intuitive appeal and has been accepted by many managers. However, it has not been verified by empirical research and it has been criticized for its apparent rigidity. Different people may have different priorities and it is difficult to accept that people’s needs progress steadily up the hierarchy. Infact, Maslow himself expressed doubts about the validity of a strictly ordered hierarchy. Some research for example McClelland has found that, the five levels of needs are not always present and that the order of the levels is not always the same as postulated by Maslow.
In addition people from different cultures are likely to have different needs categories and hierarchies. McClelland NEEDS THEORY. McClelland(1975) in Roberts,H. k. & Hunt identifies three needs that motivates managers and agrees with Maslow(1954) that needs motives are part of the personality, which he believes are triggered off by environmental factors. He further identifies these most important needs as: The need for achievement, The best known of the three, is the desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past.
People with a high need achievement have the desire to assume personal responsibility, a tendency to set moderately difficult goals, a desire for specific and immediate feedback, and pre occupation with their tasks. David McClelland, the psychologist who first identified this need, argues that only about 10 percent of the US population has a high need for achievement. The need for Affiliation Affiliation is a desire for human companionship and acceptance. People with strong need for affiliation are likely to prefer (and perform better in) a job that entails a lot of social interaction and offer opportunities to make friends.
The need for power The need for power is basically a concern for influencing people- to be strong and influential. They are likely to be happy in jobs that give them control over budget, people and decision making. OTHER MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES ADERFER ERG THEORY Aderfer (1972), in John M. Ivancevich describes a three level hierarchy, compared to the five levels proposed by Maslow. These include: 1. Existence Needs- this category is grounded in the survival or continued existence, of the person. As such, it would include many of the issues covered by the physiological and safety needs identified by Maslow. . Relatedness Needs- this category is based on the need for people to live and function in a social environment. It would embrace the need to be part of a group and belong to a valued organization. It incorporates many of the issues covered by the safety, belonging and esteem described by Maslow. 3. Growth Needs- this category is grounded in the need for people to develop their potential. As such it would cover the self-actualization and much of the esteem needs described by Maslow. HERZBERGS TWO FACTOR MODEL
The two-factor model of satisfiers and dissatisfiers was developed by Herzberg et al (1957) in Armstrong M, following an investigation into the sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of accountants and engineers. It was assumed that people have the capacity to report accurately the conditions that made them satisfied and dissatisfied with their jobs. Accordingly, the subjects were asked to tell their interviewers about the times during which they felt exceptionally good and exceptionally bad about their jobs and how long their feelings persisted.
It was found that the accounts of ‘good’ periods most frequently concerned the content of the job, particularly achievement, recognition, advancement, autonomy and the work itself. On the other hand, accounts of ‘bad’ periods most frequently concerned the context of the job. Company policy and administration, supervision, salary and working conditions more frequently appeared in these accounts than in those told about ‘good’ periods. These categorized into two types of motivation as Intrinsic Motivation: the self- generated factors that influence people to behave in a particular way or to move in a particular direction.
These factors include responsibility (feeling that the work is important and having control over one’s own resource) autonomy (freedom to act), scope to use and develop skills and abilities. Interesting and challenging work and opportunities for advancement. Extrinsic Motivation- what is done to or for people to motivate them? This includes: rewards such as increased pay, praise or promotions, punishment such as disciplinary action, withholding pay or criticism. Frederick Herzberg theory had close links with Maslow’s and believed in a two factor theory of motivation.
He stressed that, certain factors could be introduced into a business that will directly motivate an employee to work harder (Motivators) included are achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement. However, other factors called (Hygiene factors) de-motivate an employee. The most common hygiene factors, or dissatisfies include: company policy and administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relationship and working condition. Hygiene factors are factors which “surround the job” rather than the job itself.
Importantly, Herzberg viewed pay as a hygiene factor which is in direct contrast to Taylor who viewed pay and piece-rate in particular. Herzberg believed that business should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are: Job Enlargement- workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily more challenging) which should make the work more interesting.
Job Enrichment- the design of jobs so that they contain a greater number of motivators which involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement. Empowerment- means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas of their working life. For the purpose of this research, emphasis will be laid on Herzberg two-factor model.
Though recognition is identified as a motivator by Herzberg, Miller (2002:15) mentions four common incentives (money, contests and competition, recognition including praise and rewards, and disciplinary action) thought to motivate others, but they discourage intrinsic motivation. She says the key to performance is to create an environment for intrinsic motivation, using four incentives (competency, empathy, autonomy and fulfillment). Green (2000:155) captures this issue well when he says employees are motivated by what they intrinsically believe is going to happen, not by what managers promise (extrinsic) will happen.
Managers can motivate employees by setting in motion the conditions required for motivation namely, confidence, trust and satisfaction and creating an environment that reinforces those conditions. Pollock (2002:10) recognizes three of Hertzberg’s motivators as being crucial in motivating people. These are recognition, interesting work and responsibility. He says, over and above monetary rewards, what people crave is praise. They need assurance that their efforts are known, valued, and appreciated. Sometimes all it takes to satisfy this deep desire is a sincere well done”, preferably delivered in front of their peers.
Making peoples work interesting means driving away bore doom because it’s a great de-motivator. Make their work meaningful and you will spur them to realize their own highest potential. Giving people additional responsibilities implies not only giving them extra work, but work that is important and requires a higher level of knowledge and skill. GOAL THEORY Goal theory as developed by Latham and Locke (1979), states that motivation and performance are higher when individual set specific goals, when goals are difficult but accepted and when there is feedback on performance.
The implication of goal theory is that, goals set by management should be challenging enough but realistic. Participation in goal setting is important as a means of getting agreement to setting higher goals. People strive to achieve goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. Goals guide people’s response and actions and also direct work behavior and performance which lead to certain consequences or feedback. The feedback should be complete, accurate and timely in order to provide a means of checking progress on goal attainment 2. 3 JOB SATISFACTION THEORY
VIE THEORY This theory is derived from the expectancy theory of Vroom, by Porter and Lawler (1968)in Armstrong M. In addition to three basic components of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy, this model incorporates abilities and traits, role perceptions, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, and the perceived equity of the rewards. The model assumes that, for an effort to translate into a desired level of performance, the person must have the ability to perform well (abilities and traits), and he must understand the demands of his job (role clarity).
The model acknowledges that people work for both extrinsic rewards, such as money and promotions, and intrinsic rewards, such as pride in ones work and a sense of accomplishment. The model assumes that the level of performance a person attains will affect the level of rewards he perceives to be equitable. Specifically, if a person expends a great amount of effort that culminates in high performance levels, he will perceive that he deserves a substantial reward. (Dipboye, Smith, and Howell, 1994:( 116-177). Job satisfaction is the met expectations or desires of a job.
I t is a collective term of specific attitudes about work or job and it varies as a function of other non-work attitudes (age, health, etc. ). Genetic research suggests that 30% to 40% of job satisfaction is inherited. Job satisfaction and life satisfaction are interrelated and influence each other. A Gallup poll indicates that approximately 10% to 13% of workers are dissatisfied, while about 85% of workers are satisfied. Other surveys asking questions in a different manner suggests that more workers are dissatisfied. Job satisfaction varies with the type of occupation, for example, higher management means more satisfaction.
Personal characteristics of workers also have an impact on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction increases age. Whites have greater job satisfaction than non-whites. The level of education is slightly negatively related to job satisfaction. If personal skills and abilities are not required by a job, job satisfaction decreases. When a person is wage may be the most important variable to job satisfaction. High job satisfaction is associated with low turnover and low absenteeism and with high commitment. Although the evidence is not conclusive, high job satisfaction is associated with high performance and prosocial behaviors. . 4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION, JOB SATISFACTION AND MONEY The basic requirement for job satisfaction may include comparatively higher pay, an equitable payment system, real opportunities for promotion, considerate and participative management, a reasonable degree of social interaction at work, interesting and varied tasks and a high degree of autonomy: control over work pace and work methods. The degree of satisfaction obtained by individuals, however, depends largely upon their own needs and expectations, and the working environment.
The level of job satisfaction is affected by intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factors, the quality of supervision, social relationships with the work group and the degree to which individuals succeed or fail in their work. Purcell et al(2003)in Armstrong M, believe that discretionary behavior which helps the firm to be successful is most likely to happen when employees are well motivated and feel committed to the organization and when the job gives them high levels of satisfaction. Their research found that the key factors affecting job satisfaction were opportunities, job influence, teamwork and job challenge. 2. BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION. * Increases Productivity Skilled and motivated people work harder and better in improving productivity. Incentive programs promote productivity in a number of ways . Employees are often motivated for reaching targets or for good work done in general. These motivations vary but the main aim is to encourage employees to work towards company goals. With the promise of motivation and clearly defined targets, employees are more productive and motivated. * Reduce Absenteeism The bottom line with motivation programs comes down to the very simple fact that people like been rewarded for hard work and a job well done.
The rewards are only part of the equation. Motivation schemes show employees the company cares and appreciates the work they are doing. If an employee feels appreciated and has clear targets that result in rewards then they are more likely to want to come to work. * Increased Company Morale Rewards, incentives and recognition make for a happy, harmonious working environment. Goal setting and targeting objectives helps with focus and purpose . Employee motivation programs offer all of these things and are highly conducive to company morale. Increases in company morale helps reduce absenteeism and overall company cost. Public Recognition. Investor in people status brings public recognition for real achievements measured against a rigorous national standard. Investing in people helps to attract the best job applicant. It may also provide a reason for customers to choose specific goods and services. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter explains how data was collected for the study. It also deals with the research tools used to gather the data, the method used or adopted in analyzing the data and the problems encountered during the process of data collection.
The chapter distinctively discusses the following: * Sources of data * Research design * Population of the study * Sampling * Sampling procedures * Data collection techniques * Data analysis * Constraints The proposed methods adopted were structured towards the collection of data from primary and secondary sources. On the basis of the literature review, the existing acqiutance of the theme under discussion— definition, motivation, job satisfaction, motivation theories, job satisfaction theories thus its impact on employee job satisfaction fell under the following broad headings: * Definitions of motivation Job satisfaction * Motivation theories * Job satisfaction theory 3. 2 Data Sources The researchers used secondary and primary data to facilitate the data build up for the research. This was done through the use of questionnaires. The secondary sources of data collection included: * Textbooks of relevant importance to the research topic. * Published articles in Psychology and motivation journals 3. 3 Research Design The model used for this study was the descriptive research design.
This design was chosen because it is on one of the best research designs which are deemed appropriate when a researcher attempts to describe some aspects of a population by selecting an unbiased sample of individuals who are asked to complete questionnaire. 3. 4 Population of the study The population of the study comprised of 50 employees of SSNIT. This population provided the researchers with all inclusive views from diverse perspectives on the effect of motivation on employee job satisfaction. 3. 5 Sample Size The sample size for the study was thirty (30) employees of the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT).
Due to responses of constraints the sample size was reduced to 20. 3. 6 Sampling procedure Because the researchers wanted to select their sample from a population which is diverse based on management hierarchy, we used stratified sampling to group our sample population into a strata based on management hierarchy at SSNIT. The population was grouped according to low level management, middle level management and top level management. After stratified sampling, we then use simple random sampling to select our target group of thirty(30) from the sample population of fifty(50).
The reason was to give everybody an equal opportunity of being chosen or captured. 3. 7 Method of data collection A combination of primary and secondary data was used to acquire information. The secondary data was collected by going directly to some of the data sources. The primary data on the other hand was collected by the use of questionnaires. All the questionnaires were designed with both open ended and closed ended questions. 3. 8 Data collection All data was collected concurrently, that is both secondary and primary data were collected simultaneously. 3. 9 Data Analysis
Various respondents provided series of data for the making of the research report, all data collected was coded and edited to eliminate all errors and information that did not fall within the objectives. The researchers then used the information provided by respondents and analyzed the information by the use of report, using tables, charts and so on. 3. 10 Constraints In carrying out the research, the researchers encountered some problems. Thus, the refusal of the organization to release certain important data needed for the project, especially, the historical data pertaining to human resource.
The researchers could not get these data as they were deemed too confidential because of fear of competitors getting hold of them. This therefore imposed a limitation on the study. Another problem was time constraint and also inabilities to respond to the questionaires. Only twenty were responded to. Financial constraint was also a factor. CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4. 1 Introduction This chapter describes the responses to a series of questions designed to examine the impact of motivation on job satisfaction.
The chapter begins with the findings about motivation and its impact on job satisfaction on SSNIT. The questionnaires administered were 50 employees through stratified sampling out of which 30 was picked based on simple random sampling. 4. 2 1. LENGTH OF SERVICE AT SSNIT TABLE 1. OPINIONS| NO. OF RESPONSE| PERCENTAGE (%)| 0-1 years| 4| 20| 2-4 years| 8| 40| 5-10 years| 5| 25| Above 10 years| 3| 15| Total| 20| 100| SOURCE OF DATA (FIELD DATA) DECEMBER 2010 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TABLE 1 The respondents length of service at SSNIT were sought to determine how long they have been working there.
According to the table above, 40 % of respondents constituted those who fall within (2-4 years). That is, they have been employees for two to four years. Those who have been employees for five to ten years made up 25% which was the next highest (5-10 years). Also, 20% represented those who fell between (0-1) years. They have only served a year at the time the questionnaires were administered. Lastly, 15% of respondents were within the above ten years group. From the above, it can be observed that the organization (SSNIT) has a young and fresh workforce which constitutes the bulk or majority of their employees. . Think of a time at work when you felt especially bad about your job, an incident or incidents which had a long lasting effect on you, and which led to bad feelings. Describe the circumstances, and how your work was influenced by it or them. TABLE TWO. INCIDENTS THAT CAUSED DISSATISFACTION OPINIONS| NO. OF RESPONSE| PERCENTAGE (%)| COMPANY POLICY| 8| 40| OTHERS| 6| 30| WORK ITSELF| 3| 15| INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS| 3| 15| TOTAL| 20| 100| SOURCE OF DATA (FIELD DATA) DECEMBER 2010 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TABLE 2. INCIDENTS THAT CAUSED DISSATISFACTION COMPANY POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION (40%)
The majority of cases (40%) in the sample mentioned this factor as a major cause of unhappiness at SSNIT. OTHERS (30%) This was mentioned as the second strongest factor that contributes to job dissatisfaction and was experienced by people who did not choose any of the stated factors. They responded to none of them. WORK ITSELF (15%) This contributed to job dissatisfaction in 15% of the cases and related to the content of the job. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS (15%) This also contributed to job dissatisfaction in 15% of the cases related alongside work itself. 4. 4 4. Which of the following gives you Job Satisfaction?
TABLE THREE: CAUSES OF SATISFACTION OPINIONS| NO. OF RESPONSE| PERCENTAGE (%)| Work Achievement| 6| 30| Recognition| 4| 20| Work Itself| 2| 10| Promotion/Advancement| 3| 15| Salary| 3| 15| Others(please specify)| 2| 10| Total| 20| 100| SOURCE OF DATA (FIELD DATA) DECEMBER 2010 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TABLE 3. Regarding the issue of which motivating factor gave them job satisfaction, 30% of respondents felt work achievement gave them satisfaction according to the table. This means they value a sense of achievement for the accomplishment of some milestone set by the individual himself or supervisor.
Also, 20% of respondents felt recognition was what gave them satisfaction. They felt issues like recognition for job well done, good idea, appreciation, positive feedback and simply a tap on the back to acknowledge them was most important to them. Those who chose the work itself constituted 10% as can be seen from the table above. The design of the work and the demands is enough to keep them satisfied. Advancement and salary equally had 15%. Some based their satisfaction on increments in salaries whiles others taught promotion or advancement was their main satisfiers.
They all recorded 15% each as can be seen from the table. Lastly, others represented 10% and they simply did not agree with the above motivation factors or had a different set of opinion. Bateman (2004) views motivation as forces that energize, direct and sustain a person’s effort. He says that all behaviors except involuntary reflexes like eye blinks (which usually have little to do with management) are motivated. A highly motivated employee will work hard towards achieving performance goals. With adequate ability and understanding of the job, such an employee will be highly productive.
An aspect of the definition implies that people have certain beliefs about which behaviors or actions will help them satisfy their needs. This belief may or may not be accurate but they help guide behavior. From the table above, you find out that if the organization (SSNIT) wants to know whether their employees are satisfied or not then they must pursue the motivating factor of work itself. That is they have to continually design the work and its demand to suit employees. 5. which of the following gives you job dissatisfaction TABLE FOUR: CAUSES OF JOB DISSATISFACTION
OPINIONS| NO. OF RESPONSE| PERCENTAGE | Lack of Recognition| 9| 45| Company Policy| 3| 15| Low Salary| 5| 25| Technical Supervision| -| -| Work Itself| 3| 15| Others(please specify if any)| -| -| Total| 20| 100| SOURCE OF DATA (FIELD DATA) DECEMBER 2010 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TABLE 4 Respondents were also asked which of the above in table five gave them job dissatisfaction. In other words which of the above make them not fell satisfied about their work. Lack of recognition was the most important demotivator that caused dissatisfaction constituting 45% of respondents.
They feel the contributions they make towards organizational accomplishment is not appreciated. They are not congratulated for good work done in the midst of their colleagues or their ideas accepted and appreciated. This was followed by 25% of respondents who felt low salary was a dissatisfier. Company policy and work itself represented 15% equally. The views were taken from a total of 20 respondents. From the above, it can be clearly seen that lack of recognition was the strongest dissatisfier. According to Herzberg (1959) this falls under extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is what is done to or for people to motivate them.
This includes rewards, punishment and recognition or praise. In this case the failure of management of SSNIT to recognize their contribution is a dissatisfier. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 5. 0 Introduction Motivation is a major issue in every organization. Any organization that fails to motivate its employees usually faces the severe consequence of low morale. Motivation plays a significant role in the attainment of competitive advantage and job satisfaction in every organization. Findings from the analyzed data were related to the objectives of the research in this chapter.
It concluded with a general summary, findings, summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation providing suggestions on how motivation is a tool to achieve job satisfaction in SSNIT. 5. 1 SUMMARY The findings from the empirical research have indicated that 30% of the respondents ranked work achievement as number one motivator for job satisfaction from a list of five factors. This contrasts with what earlier researchers adduced that total compensation and emotions were the real motivators. The reason for this could be mainly due to the fact that workers have a desire to accomplish a goal or task.
People with a high need achievement have desire to assume personal responsibility, a tendency to set moderately difficult goals, a desire for specific and immediate feedback, and pre occupation with their tasks. There is the need for a motivation model that considers work achievement as a motivator to achieve job satisfaction. On the other hand, 45% of the respondents ranked lack of recognition as number one de-motivator for job dissatisfaction from a list of five. Workers want to be recognized and their contribution and ideas appreciated and also praised for a job well done.
If this is absent, then it could pose significant consequences to job satisfaction. Management should ensure that workers contributions are recognized and appreciated so that they do not feel disheartened. 5. 2 CONCLUSION The conclusions are based on the gaps in the motivation theory, the assumptions on motivation and the motivation framework. The theories reviewed in this study have not eluded criticism. Indeed none of the theories were developed in Africa. Before they are acted upon therefore their relevance should be evaluated and integrated into the local organizational circumstances.
Managers (supervisors) often assume that it is difficult to motivate people and that motivated workers perform better contributing to achieve organizational goals. This study has indicated that (work achievement) is a fundamental ingredient in the motivation recipe. The question of whether work achievement should be number one motivator to achieve job satisfaction has remained complex. Jobs that provide a sense of achievement and recognition may be satisfying to some individuals, as the survey results have indicated, because there is a sense of achievement when they accomplish goals set by themselves or management. However others may ot find it satisfying as compared to salary or company policy. Motivating workers is critical to the organizations success but it is an enigmatic concept. This study has not provided specific answers given the complexity and the multi-facetted nature of motivation. Instead job satisfaction guidelines have been developed and murky areas highlighted to trigger an innovative approach towards managing job satisfaction and motivation issues. 5. 3 RECOMMENDATIONS The points discussed indicates that debates on whether or not work achievement is a motivator are not yet resolved. Infact this study will instead set the debate in motion.
In the discussion work achievement was the number one satisfier contributing 30%. For work achievement to ensure job satisfaction, certain conditions must be met: According to Frederick Hertzberg, business should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are: Job Enrichment-the design of jobs so that they contain a greater number of motivators which involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work.
This should give a greater sense of work achievement. The statistics of the responses given by the employees makes it significantly clear that motivation goes beyond work achievement to achieve job satisfaction. Many put significant premium on the work itself, recognition, advancement, salary, company policy among other needs. Managers must therefore make conscious efforts to understand the needs of employees at any point in time and meet them appropriately and not only rely on work achievement as the sole tool for job satisfaction.
If the above conditions are fulfilled, then, work achievement can be used as a motivational tool for achieving job satisfaction and even competitive advantage. However, as already noted above some conditions are difficult to fulfill. On the otherhand,45% of respondents chose lack of recognition as the factor that gave them job dissatisfaction or dissatisfier. Dissatisfiers essentially describe the environment and serve primarily to prevent job dissatisfaction. This means that the workers at SSNIT feel their work is not appreciated or recognized.
Workers want to be recognized whether a note or praise, for example a manager saying ‘good idea’, well done and was in the form of appreciation, positive feedback, positive compliments and admiration. The management of SSNIT should ensure that the contributions made by employees is recognized and appreciated and it will go a long way to achieve job satisfaction and competitive advantage. Skilled and motivated workforce can be a source of competitive advantage in today’s ever dynamic and turbulent business environment. 5. 4 TO FUTURE RESEARCHERS
The findings in this research revealed a significant tradeoff between work achievement and other factors regarding those factors that gave them satisfaction. We recommend that subsequent research on this topic critically examines the rate of this tradeoff between work achievement and the other factors. And perhaps researchers may dare to exclude work achievement from the factors in subsequent studies in order to fairly examine the strengths of other factors against each other to achieve job satisfaction among employees.