in-depth exploration of characters

Objectives: R6 Authorial perspective, R13 Evaluate own reading, R18 Prose text, S&L10 Group organisation 2 3 4 5 *Ask questions *Speculate *Relate to prior reading *Inference and deduction *Visualisation *Empathy *Reread *Relate to time and place *Interpret patterns *Summarise *Interpret patterns *Interpret patterns *Ask questions *Establish relationship with author *Interpret patterns *Ask questions Group reading: pages 7–22 Group activity: narrative hooks – group card SC2 What makes an effective narrative hook? Each group shares one example of inference

Narrative hooks sheet Character, inference and deduction Group reading: pages 23–38 Group activity: explicit/inferred development of character – group card SC3 Group reading: pages 39–49 Group activity: in-depth exploration of character – group card SC4 Teacher with guided group – guided card SC1 Group reading: pages 50–63 Group activity: mind-mapping of plot and links between characters – group card SC5 Group reading: pages 64–77 Group activity: in pairs, author interrogation – group card SC6 Strategy checkcard Prompts sheet Photocopies of pp. 9–44 Structure: mind-mapping, seeing patterns Identifying and tracking themes Author’s viewpoint and intentions Two pupils to give feedback on what reading strategy helped most this lesson Refer to SC5 None 6 Select one group to demonstrate.

What new insights has this given into the book? Refer to SC7. Each group reports on one language feature and its effect Read pages 70–86 Access to the Internet 7 Narrative style at word, sentence and text level 8 9 10 11 *Hear a voice as Authorial voice. How is read author ‘heard’ in novel? Ask questions *Interpret patterns *Reread/reinterpret Endings and how they link Group reading: pages 94–100 *Summarise back to the beginning Group activity: endings and resolutions – *Pass judgements group card SC9 Outline expectations for group presentations. Preparation of presentations Group presentations: 10 minutes per text Group reading: rereading pages 64–70 Group activity: groups choose one plot event and explore how the language features work within this – group card SC7 Teacher with guided group – guided card SC2 Group reading: pages 87–94 Group activity: find examples of author’s voice – group card SC8

Photocopies of pp. 64–70 Each group to give an None example of a) authorial and b) narrative voice Each group to consider None what is effective about ending in their book Homework: Preparation/rehearsal Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 1 Robert Swindells Group card SC1 Objectives: R4 Versatile reading R12 Independent reading Resources: Strategy check-card As a whole group we have: • established the ground rules for group and guided reading; • looked at effective strategies for reading (starter activity and Strategy check-card).

Now you are going to: • read up to page 7. Group task 1. Discuss how you think the author ‘hooks’ or interests the reader, making them want to read on. 2. Be prepared to share your findings in the plenary. Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 2 Robert Swindells Group card SC2 Objectives: R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Narrative hooks sheet As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you. Now you are going to: • look at the narrative hooks used by the author.

Whilst you are reading: • think about the strategies you are using (look at the Strategy check-card); • think about the evidence you may use to support your ideas. Group reading Read together pages 7–22 (see group task first! ). Group task 1. One pupil recaps on pages 1–6. 2. Divide yourselves into two groups of three and label yourselves Group A and Group B. Group A – using the Guide to guided reading prompts sheet, what have you discovered about the main character in your book? Prepare to share your findings with Group B. Group B – using the

Narrative hooks sheet, which narrative hooks has the writer used to entice the reader? Prepare to share your findings with Group A. 3. Share your findings with the whole group, using supporting evidence. Why does this make an effective opening to Stone Cold? Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 3 Robert Swindells Group card SC3 Objectives: R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Strategy check-card, Prompts sheet As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks.

Now we will: • explore how the characters are developing. Group reading Read pages 23–38 together. Whilst you are reading: • think about the strategies you are using, especially those of inference and deduction (look at the Strategy check-card); • think about the evidence you may use to support your ideas. Group task In pairs, using the Prompts sheet on Character, what have you discovered about the main character(s) in the book? What is explicitly stated and what is inferred? Be prepared to give evidence and jot down notes in your reading journal.

Link’s character Evidence Explicit/Inferred Shelter’s character Evidence Explicit/Inferred Share your findings around the group and add examples that you did not have. How effective is Robert Swindells’ development of his main characters? What techniques does he use? Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 4 Robert Swindells Group card SC4 Objectives: R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Photocopies of pp. 9–44, highlighter pens As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks; • explored the developing relationships between character and place. Now you are going to: • explore the characterisation in more depth. Group reading Read pages 39–49 together. Group task 1. In discussion, recap on what we have learned about Link so far. 2. Give out photocopies of pp. 39–44 and highlighting pens. Working in pairs, agree responsibility for highlighting one of the following areas. What is learned about: i. unters and predators (how people perceive the homeless)? ii. pain and problems (physical pain and mental strain)? iii. partnership and poverty (what Link is learning from Ginger, proof that things are getting worse and worse)? 3. Share findings with the others in the group – what can we infer and deduce about: i. how Link seems to feel about his new life? ii. whether he will be tough enough to survive? iii. what the future might hold for him? Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 5 Robert Swindells Group card SC5

Objectives: R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: None As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks; • explored the developing relationships between character and place; • begun to explore themes and how the characters contribute towards them. Now you are going to: • continue to trace developments, including themes. Group reading Read pages 50–63 (see instructions 3 and 6 below first! ). Group task 1. One pupil to recap on the story so far, key characters and situation. 2. As a group discuss the central themes you have identified in Stone Cold so far. Make a map of them. ) 3.

Up until page 56 the narrator is still heavily reliant upon Ginger to show him all the tricks he will need in order to survive. He seems surprised by people’s attitudes towards the homeless. In pairs discuss and make another mind-map in your journals on what you think Link really learns from: i. his encounter with Captain Hook and time on the boat; ii. his walk through Camden Lock market and feelings when Ginger meets his friends; iii. hearing about Doggy Bag’s way of life and thinking about his disappearance. You should try to point towards textual evidence to support your ideas. . Share findings as a whole group. Discuss the following comment from the author: ‘I am dedicated to the idea that we are all responsible for one another, and that we ought to conduct ourselves accordingly, doing no harm to any being. ’ (Robert Swindells – Introduction to Stone Cold). For discussion: i. Is it possible to live such a life in our modern times? ii.

Do we have a duty to care for our poorest, weakest and most needy? Captain Hook sees such people as targets to be exploited. Is he wrong? iii. Is the treatment Link receives unfair? iv. Should he have toughed it out at home? Should he join the army? . How do you think we should solve the problems of homelessness and begging on the streets of Britain? Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 6 Robert Swindells Group card SC6 Objectives: R6 Authorial perspective R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Access to the Internet As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks; • explored the developing relationships between character and place; • explored themes and how the characters contribute towards them.

Now you are going to: • explore the role of the author. Group reading Read pages 64–77 together. Group task The characters are not the only ones that have a voice in a story. Readers are often given a strong impression of the author, the teller of the tale, and this can influence your experience of the story. 1. In pairs, write down five questions that you would like to ask Robert Swindells about Stone Cold and his ideas in the book. One member of the group should take on the role of the author and be interviewed as the author. 2.

When you have done this read the interview given by Robert Swindells about his reasons for writing at www. mystworld. com (a more detailed one can be found at www. achuka. co. uk). List the similarities and differences in your ideas about Robert Swindells with those presented in the interview. How close was your group’s impression of the author given in Stone Cold to that given in the interview? Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 7 Robert Swindells Group card SC7

Objectives: R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Photocopies of pp. 64–70 As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks, character, setting and mood, relationships between character and place, and emerging themes. Now we will: • explore the author’s narrative style. Group reading Paired rereading of pages 64–70. Group task 1. Recap on the story so far. How has Link’s situation altered? How has his character developed since arriving in London? 2.

The pages you have just read could be summarised in flow chart form as follows: A) B) C) Link’s initial desperation>meeting paper seller>Link can’t sleep> The all-night caff>meeting Toya>Link’s resolution (the New Me)> Arrival of new girl>forgetting Ginger>Link’s new partner. You are going to discuss together the following questions. What techniques does the author use in these pages to: i. build up tension? ii. make us feel closer to Link? iii. show the vulnerability of those on the streets? Split yourselves into three pairs, A, B and C. Each pair will focus on its given line in the flow chart above and try to answer the questions.

Focus on textual evidence to support your ideas. 3. Share your findings with the group in discussion. Homework Read pages 70–86. Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 8 Robert Swindells Group card SC8 Objectives: R6 Authorial perspective R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: None As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks, character, setting and mood, relationships between character and place, emerging themes.

Now we will look at: • authorial voice – ‘I am dedicated to the idea that we are all responsible for one another, and that we ought to conduct ourselves accordingly, doing no harm to any being. ’ (Robert Swindells – Introduction to Stone Cold) Group reading Read together pages 87–94. Group task Sometimes adults tell children scary stories in order to stop them doing something, i. e. the more frightened the children are, the less likely they are to go into the woods, or play by the river. In Stone Cold, Robert Swindells shows us the brutal reality of life on the streets.

To make things worse, his homeless youngsters are being stalked by a serial killer. If the book is to succeed, his villain must be realistic and disturbing. 1. Do you think the author wants to scare us? Does he succeed? If so, how and why? If not, why not? 2. Discuss your ideas with a partner and then make notes on the following: i. what we learn about Link and his fears in these pages; ii. how the tension slowly builds; iii. how successful Robert Swindells is in creating a frightening villain. 3. Share your findings on these questions with others in the group. 4.

Write 50 words about the character of Shelter and how you feel about him. Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 9 Robert Swindells Group card SC9 Objectives: R6 Authorial perspective R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: None As a whole group we have: • revised the range of reading strategies you have available to you; • explored narrative hooks, character, setting and mood, relationships between character and place, emerging themes and narrative style. Now we will look at: • the resolution. Group reading 1.

In pairs, discuss the questions left unanswered by the story so far. Compile a list of three things you’d like to know and three things you’d like to happen by the end of the story. Record them in your books. Share your findings with the others in the group. 2. Read pages 94–100 (see task 3). Group task 1. Discuss how your ideas matched up with those of the author, Robert Swindells. 2. As a group discuss why the author chose to let Gail go off with Gavin at the end and leave Link all alone. Would a ‘happy ending’ have been more suitable? 3. Consider what the future might hold for Link. . Will he ever get off the streets? Has he got a future of any kind? ii. Was the author making a point when writing Stone Cold? iii. What might it have been? Did you enjoy the story? Why or why not? Homework Write a detailed reflection on the ending of the story and the points you made in response to question 3 in the group task. Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE ©

Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 4 Teaching objective(s): Robert Swindells Guided card SC1 R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Strategy check-card Photocopies pp. 9–44 Highlighter pens Stone Cold by Robert Swindells, pages 39–44: developing relationships between character and place Teacher distributes Strategy check-card, clarifies the objectives and identifies the reading strategies to be used in this session, i. e. scanning for, identifying and summarising specific points made by the author. Model these strategies based on the first full page of the novel, with a focus on the problems at home that are described by the narrator. Give pupils photocopies of pp. 39–44 and highlighting pens. Explain that they will be asked to text-mark for certain features. Pupils read pp. 9–44 independently. Individual pupils are asked to highlight what is learned about each of the following: • Punters – begging and how it makes you feel; • Pain – the physical damage sleeping rough can do; • Predators – the dangers faced by the homeless; • Problems – the mind games played at night; • Partnership – Link’s gratitude towards his pal; • Poverty – proof that Link is plunging lower and lower. Ask each pupil to share their findings with the rest of the group and then ask the group to comment on the skilful way the writer uses the voice of Link to alert us to the reality of life on the streets in modern Britain.

What are we meant to infer and deduce about the future Link now faces? I. e. is he tough enough to survive the life he describes so vividly? Review reading strategies used in this session and, if they are keeping them, ask pupils to make brief notes in journals to record key points brought out in reading and discussion today. Homework: Read pages 44–49. Text focus: Teaching sequence: Introduction to text: Strategy check: Independent reading and related task: Return to text: developing response Review (reading target and next steps): Evaluation:

Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3 Stone Cold Lesson 7 Teaching objective(s): Robert Swindells Guided card SC2 R6 Authorial perspective R13 Evaluate own reading R18 Prose text Resources: Strategy check-card Photocopies pp. 64–70 Text focus: Stone Cold by Robert Swindells, pages 64–70: narrative style and authorial attitudes, with a focus on word, sentence and text level features Teacher clarifies objectives and asks a pupil to recap on the story so far – how has Link’s situation altered?

How has his character developed since arriving in London? Distribute Strategy check-card and outline expectations for developing the specific active reading skills targeted in this session. Model aloud the skills of inference and deduction on a section of the Daily Routine Orders chapters, showing how the writer implies a sense of menace. Stress that these strategies are essential skills for engaging with, and enjoying, texts and improving as a reader. Ask pupils to explain/illustrate when they have used these strategies recently.

Give pupils photocopies of pages 64–70 and ask them in pairs to consider the techniques the author has used in order to imply: • a growing tension; • that Link deserves the reader’s sympathy; • the vulnerability of those on the streets. Ask pupils to share their initial thoughts on key features at word, sentence and text level and then text-mark onto the sheets the evidence supporting their ideas. Teaching sequence: Introduction to text: Strategy check: Independent reading and related task: Return to text – developing response Whole-group discussion (teacher leads at first and then hands over questioning to pupils).

Ask pupils to focus on textual evidence to support their findings. Why has the author chosen to remove a major character from Link’s environment and bring in another at this point in the story? What will this add or take away? Focus on inference and deduction and where the story may move next. Ask pupils to update their journals, if they are keeping them, listing their discoveries and speculations resulting from today’s session. Homework: Read pages 78–86. Review (reading target and next steps): Evaluation: Key Stage 3 National Stratagy NATE © Crown copyright 2003 Group reading at Key Stage 3