GENDER Fewer differences between men and women that affect job performance. GENDER 1. Women are more willing to conform with authority. 2. Men are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of success. 3. Women with pre-school children prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting to accommodate family responsibilities. GENDER 4. No consistent male-female differences in: ? ? ? ? ? ? Problem solving ability Analytical skills Competitive drive Motivation Sociability Learning ability 5. Absenteeism – no significant differences.
People in the workplace do identify more with people like themselves so in some cases there may be opportunities given to people based on the fact that they are like their supervisor. RACE & ETHNICITY • People in organization may favor employees of their own race. • On the basis of race people some times get lower ratings in interviews, paid less and promoted less frequently. • Some scholars argue that it is not productive to discuss race for policy, biological, genetics and anthropological reasons. TENURE Tenure refers to the length of time people have been on the job and is tied to seniority.
Recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity. • Tenure (work experience) appears to be a good predictor of employees productivity. • Longer a person stays in a job, less likely to quit. TENURE • In terms of both frequency of absence and turnover, tenure is the single most important explanatory variable. • Past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior. • Tenure and job satisfaction are positively related. • Stable predictor of job satisfaction than chronological age. OTHER BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. Religion • May impact the workplace in areas of dress, grooming and scheduling
Sexual Orientation • Federal law does not protect against discrimination (but state or local laws may). • Domestic partner benefits are important considerations. 3. Gender Identity • Relatively new issue – transgendered employees. INTELLECTUAL ABILITY • Ability – defined as an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks associated with the job. It is a current assessment of what one can do. • Intellectual ability – are abilities needed to perform mental activities like, thinking, reasoning, problem solving etc. INTELLECTUAL ABILITY.
Smart people generally earn more money and attain higher levels of education. • General Mental Ability (GMA) takes a look at overall intelligence and is generally recognized by researchers. • Wonderlic Personnel Test is generally used as a quick measure of intelligence in the hiring/recruitment process. DIMENSIONS OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITY Number Aptitude Verbal Comprehension Memory Spatial Visualization Intellectual Ability Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Perceptual Speed NUMBER APTITUDE • Is the ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic. • Will be effective in jobs requiring mathematical ability, such as an Accountant.
VERBAL COMPREHENSION • Verbal comprehension is the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other. • This ability will be helpful in jobs where the manager needs to understand policies in order to carry out their job tasks. PERCEPTUAL SPEED • Perceptual speed is the ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately. • This particular ability is helpful when an employee needs to take in a lot of information and make decisions about the patterns, such as a Detective or Inspector. INDUCTIVE REASONING.
Inductive reasoning is present when an individual can identify a logical sequence in a problem in order to help find a solution. • An employee who needs to make decisions about the future based on historical information will need this ability. DEDUCTIVE REASONING • Deductive reasoning is the ability to use logic and assess the implications of the argument. • When making choices between two different possible solutions to a problem, a manager would need to call upon their deductive reasoning skills. SPATIAL VISUALISATION.
Spatial Visualization is when someone can imagine how an object would look if its position in space was changed. • An employee who needs to make decisions about office setup or interior design would need to have a high level of spatial visualization ability. MEMORY • Memory is the ability to retain and recall past experiences. • Individuals who need to act quickly in a situation, such as a paramedic or nurse, would need a significant degree of memory ability. INTELLEGENCE & JOB SATISFACTION • While intelligence is a big help in performing a job well, it doesn’t make people happier or more satisfied with their jobs. • The correlation between intelligence & job satisfaction is about Zero.