Job Shop Production usually refers to manufacturers that produce items that are “one of a kind”, for example, manufactures of automation systems and tooling. Manufacturers who produce a wide variety of items in very low volumes also fall into the Job shop category. For example, very large mining trucks are produced in volumes typically less than 400 annually. Each truck has thousands of components so you can imagine that there are significant challenges in production scheduling, purchasing and inventory control with this type of manufacturing company as with all Job shops.
Job Production Job production involves producing a one-off product for a specific customer. Job production is most often associated with small firms (making railings for a specific house, building/repairing a computer for a specific customer, making flower arrangements for a specific wedding etc. ) but large firms use Job production too. Examples include: Designing and implementing an advertising campaign Auditing the accounts ofa large . Building a new factory Installing machinery in a factory In this system products are made to satisfy a specific order.
However that order may be produced- -only once -at irregular time intervals as and when new order arrives -at regular time intervals to satisfy a continuous demand The following are the important Features of Job shop type production system: Machines and methods employed should be general purpose as product changes are quite frequent. Planning and control system should be flexible enough to deal with the frequent changes in product requirements. Man power should be skilled enough to deal with changing work conditions. ? Schedules are actually non existent n this system as no definite data is available on the product. In process inventory will usually be high as accurate plans and schedules do not exist. Product cost is normally high because of high material and labor costs. Grouping of machines is done on functional basis (i. e. as lathe section, milling section etc. ) This system is very flexible as management has to manufacture varying product types. Material handling systems are also flexible to meet changing product requirements.
Key benefits of Job production include: work is generally of a high quality high level of customisation is possible to meet the customer’s exact requirements significant flexibility is possible, especially when compared to mass production. performing Disadvantages include: higher cost of production requires the use of specialist labour (compare with the repetitive, low-skilled Jobs in mass production. slow compared to other methods of production. Essential features There are a number of features that should be implemented in a Job production environment, they include: Clear definitions of objectives should be set.
Clearly outlined decision making process. Batch production is a manufacturing used to produce or process any product in BATCHES, as opposed toa CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION process, or a one-off production. The primary characeristic of batch production is that all components are completed at a workstation before they move to the next one. Batch production is popular in bakeries and in the manufacture of sports shoes, pharmaceutical ingredients, inks, paints and adhesives .
Batch Production Batch production is the manufacture of a number of identical articles either to meet a specific order or to meet a continuous demand. Batch can be manufactured either- -only once -or repeatedly at irregular time intervals as and when demand arise -or repeatedly at regular time intervals to satisfy a continuous demand The following are the important Features of batch type production system: As final product is somewhat standard and manufactured in batches, economy of scale can be availed to some extent. Machines are grouped on functional basis similar to the Job shop manufacturing. ? Semi automatic, special purpose automatic machines are generally used to take advantage of the similarity among the products. Labor should be killed enough to work upon different product batches. In process inventory is usually high owing to the type of layout and material handling policies adopted. Semi automatic material handling systems are most appropriate in conjunction with the semi automatic machines. Normally production planning and control is difficult due to the odd size and non repetitive nature of order. There are inefficiencies associated with batch production.
The production equipment must be stopped, re- confgured, and its output tested before the next batch can be produced. Time between batches is known as ‘down time’. Batch production is useful for a factory that makes seasonal items or products for which it is difficult to FORECAST demand. There are several advantages of batch production; it can reduce initial capital outlay because a single production line can be used to produce several