Noa is often paired with tapu indicating that often noa refers to restoring a balance, unrestricted. A high level of tapu is regarded as dangerous. The role for tikanga and tohunga is to reduce th level of dangerous tapu until it is noa. However, it is not plainly the case to think of noa as being opposite or the absence of tapu. For instance, a person could be very tapu if one got very sick or there was bleeding. That one still has personal tapu even though the increasing of tapu symptoms have passed lead the person to return to the safe state.
Health is restored after a crisis passes, which means a balance has been reached (the state of noa). Mead, H. M. (2003). (3) 2. Mana tangata According to The New Zealand Auction Plan for Human Rights, human rights (mana tanga) underlie our expectation about our education, work, life, and health. The essence of mana tangata is rights, control, and authority that are emanated directly from human. Injury or illness attributable to human activities, deaths through warfare, lifestyle changes affecting exercise, nutrition, and sanitation are all connected to Maori Hauora.
Mana tangata relates to mana because it is an acknowledgment of acquired skills and inheritance (mana) which influence certain people to direct the daily activities in order to towards higher quality of life within Maori community. http://www2. ohchr. org/english/issues/plan_actions/docs/New_Zealand. pdf (4) 3. Mana “house nigger” According to Amanda Cameron’s article – Health book tells Maori to smoke – on Maori health, the term of “house niggers” was describe as the people who have been brainwashed by Pakeha and kept tamed by greedy “Uncle Tom” Maori health managers. ttp://www. nzherald. co. nz/nz/news/article. cfm? c_id=1&objectid=10347182 (5) From the book, Maori Health, was co-authored by the trust’s chairman Peter Caccioppoli and Rhys Cullen, Maori are persuaded to change their lifestyle because the Crown thinks it would reduce the number of Maori requiring treatment for disease if they change their diet (eat less and better), exercise more and stop smoking. In fact, people do not know how Maori health was defined and how healthcare for Maori was delivered. They just put Maori in position that relies on research on Pakeha.
There is no reason why Maori cannot have their rights to choose their own life style. The health system is against what Maori enjoy and is racist, which can directly influence the mana of Maori. Caccioppoli, P. Cullen R. (2005) (6) 4. Mana (Respect) Respect, the most essential term of mana, is a key professional and social responsibility for all who are involved in the sector of health and disability services. This term for uniqueness of each individual child underlies all the rights within the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer’s Rights.
The right to dignity and independence is the basic requirement to respect the dignity and mana of the child. Negative attitudes held about consumer’s values and beliefs can impact upon their mana and wellbeing. For example, a nurse should provide respect in accordance with people with cultural requirement. http://www. hdc. org. nz/education/presentations/the-code,-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-and-concepts-of-maori-health (7) 5. Mana (Pride) – Whakama Whakama gives the notion of embarrassment and shame. The restoration of mana and tapu of all parties involved can sometimes help to eliminate the feeling of whakama.
Hence, this term is bound up with the loss of mana. Collective whakama are able to affect the whanau, hapu and iwi that can be intense on both group and individual. The embracement or shame felt is an extremely strong and emotional force which can contribute to violence and suicide. List of Maori terms – http://www. justice. govt. nz (8) Question 2: 5 terms relating to Kaitiakitanga 1. Ira tangata (gene) and surrogacy Surrogacy means a woman gives birth to a child on behalf of another woman who lost her ability to carry her own children.
The term of ira tangata (gene) and surrogacy is mentioned by Maori Attitudes to Assisted Human Reproduction. The surrogate mother may be paid to nurture the fertilized egg, giving the birth to the new life and then handling the new life to the natural parents. The aim of surrogacy is to produce a new life and thus create a new mauri. However, this would raise different sorts of moral and social issues. Mead, H. M. (2003) (9) For example, where a surrogate carried the intended parents’ embryo (gestational surrogacy), the integrity of whakapapa are not undermined.
Whereas, when a surrogate is also donating an egg (contain her ira tabgata – gene) to the process and therefore the biological mother, then concerns about the integrity of whakapapa would rise. The surrogate may not be mentioned in whakapapa. http://lens. auckland. ac. nz/images/3/32/AHR_report_final. pdf (10) 2. Manaakitanga At the Cole’s Medical practice in New Zealand 2011, Peter Jansen and David Jansen articulated the term of Manaakitanga refers to the obligations and responsibilities to describe care for family and for visitors that is related to kaitiakitanga.
Being hospitable and looking after one’s visitor is given priority. The provision of food (kia) and accommodation are involved in the process of welcoming and caring for visitors. http://www. mcnz. org. nz/portals/0/publications/coles/005%20-%20george. pdf (11) The aim of manaakitanga is to nurture relationships and as far as possible to respect the mana of other no matter what their standing in society might be. Mead, H. M. (2003) (12) Manaakitanga seeks to maintain balance harmony by informing kaupapa and protecting the quality or integrity of relationships among groups. www. tumana. aori. nz/assets/Te-Tauranga-Waka. doc (13) 3. Collective Responsibility In Maori society, collective responsibility is normally emphasised on the well-being of group, as opposite to the Pakeha focus on the individual. Grant Berghan(2007) (14) Collective responsibility is essential seem in terms of caring and whanaungatanga which belongs to the individual, the whanau, hapu and iwi (descended from a common ancestor. In The Code, Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Concepts of Maori Health, the right 4(4) of the Code emphasises holistic health is a cornerstone of Maori health.
Te Hingengaro generally refers to mental health. Te Tinana is the physical body/representation of the ancestor. Both of them together determine how people feel about themselves and are therefore vital factors influencing a person’s health. Maori believe tat the mind, body, and soul are all closely inter-related and influence physical wellbeing. Physical cannot be dealt with in isolation, nor can the individual be seen as separate from their family. http://www. hdc. org. nz/education/presentations/the-code,-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-and-concepts-of-maori-health (15) 4. Family violence (Child abuse)
Family violence is any violent act inflicted by one member of the household. Families and whanan are strong and richly interconnected with communities. They are able to support their member’s wellbeing, identity, participation in society and independence. Strong families are central to achieving wellbeing for all New Zealander, today and in the future. Family violence, including child abuse and neglect, is a major problem in New Zealand. Maori are more likely than non-Maori children to be assessed as abused and neglected. In 2002, 10. 3 Maori children compared with 5. 9 non-Maori per 1000 were assessed as abused and neglected.
Ministry of Social Development has strengthened early intervention for vulnerable children and family. They are trying to improve health, education, and parent support services, as well as strengthen monitoring to prevent the family violence. http://www. msd. govt. nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/corporate/statement-of-intent/2005/families-and-whanau. html(16) 5. Whanau and smoking Whanau refers to family relationship, friendship, and other interpersonal relationship. The tendency of smoking in Maori community can result from lack of whanau support and care.
Smoking represents one of the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors affect health status. Recent national surveys (below) have shown that Maori adults smoke tobacco at a higher rate compared with the percentage of total population. [pic] http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470538/ (17) Smoking is the key risk factor for causing or contributing to death in Maori society. Thus, the programme Aukati KaiPaipa offers a strong cultural identity and support within whanau in order to address smoking addiction. http://www. bpac. org. nz/magazine/2009/july/smoking. asp (18)
Question 3: Examples based on mana and kaitiakitanga terms Tapu In the Cole’s Medical Practice in New Zealand 2009, noa is the absence of tapu and donates the state of being normal, ordinary or safe. On the other hand, tapu can be understood as the state of dangerous. However, tapu is believed to be scared by psychotherapist and clinical advisor Cabrini ‘Ofa Makasiale. The concept of tapu is more about safety than about a punitive measure. The function of tapu is to protect and enhance people’s lives. Cabrini ‘Ofa Makasiale(2007) (19) These two meaning are quite different in terms of the theory described by different health sectors.
Tapu defines the boundary between safe and unsafe. They analyse tapu from different kaupapa (subject) of the term. Auahi Kore The term Auahi Kore is used by The Hauora provider Te Kotahitanga Trust in order to mean Maori should have their own rights to make choices on issues about smoking. This opinion was mentioned by Peter Caccioppoli and Phys Cullen in their book Maori Health on page 108. However, Hon Peter Hodgson who is the minister of health uses the same term to mean Auahi Kore is a good lifestyle which can lead a longer and healthier life for Maori people in New Zealand Health Strategy.
Smoking is the root of a variety of disease like lung cancer and heart disease, which are trend to shorten human’s life. www. moh. govt. nz/moh. nsf/pagesmh/5507/$File/mentalhealth-toolkit-relinked08. doc (20) The difference in meaning is that they focus on two different theories. The previous one concentrates on rights, while the other concerned about health, which is dominant culture using Maori term to promote a healthier life. Question 4: 5 terms relate to Hauora Outcomes Tapu and mental disease: Tapu is about scared bonds between people. These bonds could stem Pacific eople from the cosmic and spiritual relationships between them, their patients and their gods. Spirituality is a key component in Pacific models care and exists alongside the mental aspect of a person’s wellbeing. For Pacific people, the concept of wellbeing focuses on the collective, rather than the individual. Therefore the breakdown of the holistic self as well as breach of tapu can contribute to mental illness. www. leva. co. nz/file/Documents/090428-le-va-seitapu-real-skills-web. pdf (21) Take cervical screening for example, many women are not willing to see doctor even though they have already known their situation.
Womb is scared and a part of tapu for woman. Barriers such as shyness caused by tapu may contribute women of any ethnicity to suffer regular cervical screening. The chart below shows cervical screening rates in different areas by 2009. [pic] http://www. bpac. org. nz/magazine/2010/november/cervicalscreening. asp (22) Mana tangata and Lifestyle Awareness Mana tangata refers to human rights which are closely connected with human lifestyle. According to National Health Committee (NHC, 1998), Maori are over-represented in the areas of unemployment, poverty, crime, poor diet, and harmful lifestyle choice such as alcohol and drug abuse.