Explain the distinguishing features of managerial accounting. Identify the three broad functions of management. Define the three classes of manufacturing costs. Distinguish between product and period costs. Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing income statement. Indicate how cost of goods manufactured is determined. Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing balance sheet. Identify trends in managerial accounting.
Managerial accounting is a field of accounting that provides economic and financial information for managers and other internal users. (b) Mary is incorrect. Managerial accounting applies to all types of businesses—service, merchandising, and manufacturing. (a) Financial accounting is concerned primarily with external users such as stockholders, creditors, and regulators. In contrast, managerial accounting is concerned primarily with internal users such as officers and managers. Financial statements are the end product of financial accounting. The statements are prepared quarterly and annually.
In managerial accounting, internal reports may be prepared as frequently as needed. The purpose of financial accounting is to provide general-purpose information for all users. The purpose of managerial accounting is to provide special-purpose information for specific decisions. 2. (b) (c) 3. Differences in the content of the reports are as follows: Financial • Pertains to business as a whole and is highly aggregated. • Limited to double-entry accounting and cost data. • Generally accepted accounting principles. Managerial • Pertains to subunits of the business and may be very detailed.
Extends beyond double-entry accounting system to any relevant data. • Standard is relevance to decisions. In financial accounting, financial statements are verified annually through an independent audit by certified public accountants. There are no independent audits of internal reports issued by managerial accountants. 4. Budgets are prepared by companies to provide future direction. Because the budget is also used as an evaluation tool, some managers try to game the budgeting process by underestimating their division’s predicted performance so that it will be easier to meet their performance targets.
On the other hand, if the budget is set at unattainable levels, managers sometimes take unethical actions to meet targets to receive higher compensation or in some cases to keep their jobs. Karen should know that the management of an organization performs three broad functions: (1) Planning requires management to look ahead and to establish objectives. (2) Directing involves coordinating the diverse activities and human resources of a company to produce a smooth-running operation. (3) Controlling is the process of keeping the company’s activities on track. Disagree.
Decision making is not a separate management function. Rather, decision making involves the exercise of good judgment in performing the three management functions explained in the answer to question five above. Employees with line positions are directly involved in the company’s primary revenue generating operating activities. Examples would include plant managers and supervisors, and the vice president of operations. In contrast, employees with staff positions are not directly involved in revenuegenerating operating activities, but rather serve in a support capacity to line employees.
Examples include employees in finance, legal, and human resources. 5. 6. 7. 1-4 Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Weygandt, Managerial Accounting, 5/e, Solutions Manual (For Instructor Use Only) Questions Chapter 1 (Continued) 8. CEOs and CFOs must now certify that financial statements give a fair presentation of the company’s operating results and its financial condition and that the company maintains an adequate system of internal controls. In addition, the composition of the board of directors and audit committees receives more scrutiny, and penalties for misconduct have increased.
The differences between income statements are in the computation of the cost of goods sold as follows: Manufacturing company: Merchandising company: 10. Beginning finished goods inventory plus cost of goods manufactured minus ending finished goods inventory = cost of goods sold. Beginning merchandise inventory plus cost of goods purchased minus ending merchandise inventory = cost of goods sold. 9. The difference in balance sheets pertains to the presentation of inventories in the current asset section. In a merchandising company, only merchandise inventory is shown.
In a manufacturing company, three inventory accounts are shown: finished goods, work in process, and raw materials. Manufacturing costs are classified as either direct materials, direct labor, or manufacturing overhead. No, Matt is not correct. The distinction between direct and indirect materials is based on two criteria: (1) physical association and (2) the convenience of making the physical association. Materials which can not be easily associated with the finished product are considered indirect materials. Product costs, or inventoriable costs, are costs that are a necessary and integral part of producing the finished product.