Medical Benefits and Risks Involved in Male Circumcision BY kin123 Male Circumcision A surgical procedure for males that is so easily overlooked and such a norm for many to undergo, male circumcision is a topic one must be educated about. Male circumcision according to Mayo Clinic “is the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the pen’s” (Mayo Clinic). It is commonly done on newborns, although it can be done later in life as well.
The United States and other places around the world including Africa and Europe participate in this removal of the foreskin, but the uestion is why do so many do so? Is it because of health reasons or cultural norms? As so many people do it, why might some be so against it? Male circumcision is a major controversy and is a debatable topic. There are many sides to the idea of male circumcision. I believe that there is no right or wrong as long as you are educated and informed about the pros and cons of the procedure and decide knowledgeably.
Many parents decide to circumcise their boys as newborns with the intent that it’s a health precaution as well as a protection against sexually transmitted diseases. There are many studies that show results that males have a lower chance of getting HIV if circumcised, it is not limited to Just the US but other countries too. A Journal by Bertran Auvert revealed “acceptability of male circumcision among uncircumcised men in southern Africa is high, at about 60 – 70%” (Auvert 150-151).
So with many studies with similar results many organizations including The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS are “implementing national male circumcision programs to help prevent the spread of HIV (Auvert 150-151). While programs and eople are pushing for circumcision for the prevention of STDs and infections, there are also discussions to improve techniques done in some countries including Africa.
As a Journal I came across put it “redirecting male circumcision from traditional providers to hygienic clinics” (Gilliam, Brooks, Leibowitz, Klosinski, Sawires, Szekeres, Weston, and Coates 1207-1211). This will ensure a safe male circumcision that will be less prone to any complications. As Helen A. Weiss and her colleagues stated, “traditional circumcision as a rite of passage is associated with substantially greater isks, more severe complications than medical circumcision among neonates” (Helen , Larke, Halperin, and Schenker).
Although circumcision does show some possible medical benefits there are many risks involved that should be put into account as well. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, “in circumstances in which there are potential benefits and risks, yet the procedure is not essential to the child’s current well-being, parents should determine what is in the best interest of the child” (AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS 686-693). Since the procedure isn’t ecessary for ones well being, the complications may out weigh the potential benefits to some people. Surgical risks associated with circumcision, particularly bleeding, penile injury, and local infection, as well as the consequences of the pain experienced witn neonatal circumcision are valid concerns that require appropriate responses” (Bailey, Moses, and Ronald 368-373). This goes to show that circumcision isn’t Just any procedure that should be taken lightly rather thoroughly considered. Male circumcision shouldn’t be done to fit in or because it’s a norm around us. It should be a decision made based upon knowledge and knowing all risks and benefits of the procedure.
I think that the conclusion Stephen Moses, Robert C Bailey, and Allan R Ronald made is nicely put, “a decision as to whether to recommend male circumcision in a given society should be based upon an assessment of the risk for and occurrence of the diseases which are associated with the presence of the foreskin, versus the risk of the complications of the procedure. In order for individuals and their families to make an informed decision, they should be provided ith the best available evidence regarding the known benefits and risks” (Bailey, Moses, and Ronald 368-373).
The Sterk article was very interesting and gave me an idea of how to go about my research. It was intriguing how Claire Sterk actually engaged with prostitutes and eventually got to know their lives from the inside. Her observations and interactions with the prostitutes were a key to conducting her research. Sterk developed trust and a relationship with her target group, which is a smart idea. She states, “both parties need to get to know each other, become aware nd accepting for each others’ roles, and engage in a reciprocal relationship” (Sterk pg. 3).
I think she went about her research in a great way. Although my research isn’t going to be as hands on, I will definitely go about her methods when asking questions to my participants, such as keeping my opinions to myself and “refraining from presenting myself as an expert” (Sterk pg. 3). Some questions and topics I would ask participants will pertain to what they think of male circumcision in general and if it is a topic of concern to them. Also I would proceed in asking if they talk about ircumcision with friends or if they heard stories pertaining to male circumcision whether good or bad.
I would also be sure to find out what stereotypes or myths they have heard about circumcision. I want to ask college kids my age so they will be more prone to answer and to have an insight on what they think for they will be parents one day and will have to make that decision. I will find people around I-JPs campus and ask a few of my friends to participate. I will also have adults and even have elders’ opinion of this topic. I would make the conversation and questions asked elaxed and easy so people will hopefully respond truthfully.