Content theories of motivation are based on the fact that the labor activity of workers due solely to the needs and focus on their identification. In turn, procedural theories of motivation are based on the fact that behavior of an individual is determined not only by a person’s needs, but also by the perception of the situation, expectations for the capacity, as well as the effects of the selected type of behavior, according to Motivation.
Needs. It should be noted that Abraham Maslow recognized that people have many different needs and they could be divided into five main categories: he theory of justice expectations. According to this theory, the results achieved by the employee depend on three variables: the effort, the ability of a person’s character and awareness of its role in the labor process. The level of effort, in turn, depends on the value of interest and assesses the likelihood of relations efforts and rewarded. Achieving the desired results can lead to internal rewards of the satisfaction of the work performed, and external rewards – financial incentives, praise, career, etc.
It is also believed that there may be a link between performance and employee to give him rewards that reflect the possibilities determined by the head of a particular employee and the organization. Value theory by L. Porter – E. Lawler in the practice of motivation is that it shows how important it is to create a motivational system to combine elements such as effort, ability, results, reward, satisfaction and perception. Furthermore L. Porter – E. Lawler showed that the high productivity of work is the cause of complete satisfaction, rather than a consequence of it.
An important conclusion of this theory is the need to change the employee’s salary, depending on the success of his work. According to the theory of justice, people have their own assessment of the equity interest issued for certain results. Satisfaction – is the result of internal and external rewards based on their equity. Satisfaction is a measure of how valuable reward actually is. This assessment will affect the person’s perception of future situations.
Motivational concepts that are also enough known are related to a group of content theories are the theory of David McClelland, in which he focuses on the needs of the higher levels: power, success and involvement. On this basis, according to McClelland, there is a fourth requirement – to avoid trouble, obstacles or opposition to the implementation of the above three requirements. Motivational and hygienic model of F. Herzberg. It is widely known among scholars and practitioners was another model of motivation, developed F.
Hertzberg with employees in the mid 50-ies of XX century and known as the “two-factor theory of hygiene. ” As hygiene factors, he took the following: company policy and administration; working conditions; earnings; interpersonal relationships with superiors, colleagues and subordinates; degree of direct control over the work. Motivation, according to F. Herzberg, is achievement of objectives, promotion, high level of responsibility and autonomy, creative and business growth, recognition, interesting content work. According to F.
Herzberg hygiene factors themselves are not a cause for satisfaction, but their degradation leads to dissatisfaction with work, according to Frederick Herzberg’s motivation and hygiene factors. Therefore, these factors are not motivating for employees’ value. Group motivators directly cause job satisfaction and affect the level of labor achievements. The theory of five nuclear factors by Hackman and Oldham. In the 70-ies of XX century was published a review of Hackman and Oldham the impact of the content of labor to maintain motivation.
Developing the doctrine F. Herzberg, in their model, they identified five so-called nuclear factors, which, to them, a significant effect on work motivation. In accordance with the severity of these factors in the ordinary activities of the employee, they lead to the specific experiences that Hackman and Oldham called “critical mental states. Group theory of valence-instrumentality expectations includes concepts of Heinz Heckhausen, Vroom and a number of similar theories relating to procedural learning motivation towards work behavior.
Common to these theories is the proposition that there is a requirement – not only requirement motivation. People consciously choose a course of conduct which, in their view, would lead to the desired results. These theories try to explain what objectives are formed, and why, how persistent they are pursued to achieve the expected results. The theory of Justice S. Adams. The group process of theories of motivation is aimed at organizational problems of production, the substance of the work, and is to be widely used in the western management “theory of justice”, developed in the 60 years of XX century.
Adams, on the results of studies conducted in the company “General-Electric”. This theory postulates the search for the individual a certain state of equilibrium with its social environment (in particular, in terms of evaluation and pay, rewards for achievement). Individual compares two relationships: the relationship between his own effort and reward; same ratio, seen in monitoring the activities of others and to compare with their own efforts and reward. The theory of motivation of D. Atkinson.
One of the theories is a process known as the theory of motivation of D. Atkinson, the essence of which is as follows. Employee behavior is the result of the interaction of the individual qualities of the individual and the situation of its perception. Each person strives for success, avoids failure and has two related motives: the motive for success and motivations to avoid failures. The theory of reinforcement B. Skinner. A significant contribution to the study of the mechanisms of human motivation to work made development of B.
Skinner, who proposed the theory in 1938, increase motivation (reinforcement theory), the essence of which is as follows: people’s behavior is determined by their past experiences. Consequently, workers prefer a mission that in the past entailed positive results, according to Theories of Motivation. All in all, there are many motivational theories and many authors who have shown their opinion considering the issue. Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler, Maslow, Atkinson Heckhausen, and Hackman and Oldham have different point of view but all of them have something in common.
The theories of motivation describe the reasons and personal development that a human has and expands its potential, as well as the need for self-actualization that can never be fully satisfied. Works cited Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs motivational model.