performance of the attributes

Attitude is determined by beliefs on performance of the attribute and importance of that attribute To change their attitude on a brand/competing brand change their belief on attribute and their perception of the value of that attribute and add a new attribute to the mix. Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning vs. Psychoanalytic Research Classical Conditioning (Association) using an unconditioned stimulus to generate an unconditioned response which eventually becomes a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus Pavlov’s Dog

Operant Conditioning (Instrumental) behavior is followed by a positive or negative consequence which determines probability of behavior reoccurring Use positive reinforcement to encourage behavior Psychoanalytic Research (Freud) motivation to purchase is determined deep in subconscious mind Need qualitative research- in depth interviews, focus groups, etc. Source Attributes Power Ability to reward or punish recipient through their perception of source’s power based on recipients perceived control/scrunity/concern of the source over them Can induce to respond to their position

Credibility Expertise (experience,skill) trustworthiness (honest) Attractiveness Similarity btwn source and recipient Familiarity through repeat exposure Likeability through affection for source caused by looks/behavior/traits Elaboration Likelihood Model Ways consumers change/form attitudes in response to persuasive messages Routes to attitude change Central highly motivated/able to process message, pays close attention Peripheral less motivated/able to process message, pays attention to peripheral cues not message Ex. An attractive endorser Meaning Transfer Model

Celebrity effectiveness as endorser dependent on meaning culture has associated with them and how they are brought into the endorsement process Ex. Status, class, age Stage 1: Culture Objects/persons/context popular to culture transferred into meaning associated with popular celebrity Stage 2: Endorsement Cultural meaning of celebrity Celebrity transferred onto Product Stage 3: Consumption Product is consumed by consumer transfer meaning of product onto consumer Consumer Decision Rules Simplified Heuristics rule of thumb used to make quick decision

Affect Referral Decision Rule overall impression instead of detailed comparison Non- Compensatory short cut to making a choice, a product with low standing on one attribute can’t compensate by being better on another attribute and is eliminated Compensatory allow product to make up for lack on one attribute by being better at another Response Hierarchies Traditional Hierarchy of Effects Alternative Response Hierarchy FCB Planning Model Traditional Hierarchy of Effects Model Stage 1: Cognitive Stage (Learn) Awareness Knowledge Stage 2: Affective Stage (Feel) Liking Preference Conviction Stage 3: Behavioral Stage (Do) Purchase

Alternative Response Hierarchies Based on level of involvement in purchase and perceived level of differences in alternatives Learning Model High involvement, high differentiation- learn then develop attitudes then behave based on Cognitive (learn) Affective (feel) Conative (do, action) Dissonance/Attribution Model High involvement, low differentiation- behave first then develop attitudes then learn/process the behavior Conative(do) Affective (feel) Cognitive (learn) Low Involvement Model Low involvement, both high and low differentiation- learn first, then behave, then develop attitude Cognitive (learn) Conative (do) Affective (feel)