Photosynthesis and Respiration

The Importance of Photosynthesis and Respiration Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in order to provide you with energy from the food you eat: Photosynthesis is the process in which certain life forms are able to use sunlight to create energy. This energy is created by making carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Plants release large amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere as they produce much more than needed during the photosynthesis process. Aerobic respiration is an important process in life as we know it.

This process further breaks down molecules and sugars using oxygen. During this process adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is created, used to store and transfer energy to cells throughout the body. (Aerobic respiration, 2010) Photosynthesis and aerobic respiration are both needed for each other to be able to perform their primary functions. One without the other would not work properly. Between both of these processes we receive three main sources; water, carbon dioxide and oxygen. Plants and animals require all three of these in order to live.

Carbon dioxide and oxygen are a lot like a circle. Animals need oxygen to live and emit carbon dioxide, while plants need carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates and omit oxygen, thus completing the circle. (Photosynthesis, 2005) During the photosynthesis stage a plant produces oxygen that aerobic respiration will use in order to break molecules, during this process electrons are released creating energy and a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is created. Through ATP, complex molecules are broken down into simple ones, allowing them to be used appropriately.

(Photosynthesis, 2005) In the absence of oxygen some cells and organisms can use glycolysis coupled to fermentation to produce energy from the sugar created by photosynthesis: Fermentation allows for the production of energy without oxygen using organic compounds. Fermentation produces ATP with organic compounds like carbohydrates as the electron acceptor instead of oxygen, although less than cellular respiration. Yeast and muscle cells are capable of both cellular respiration and fermentation to harvest energy.

When yeast cells are in a non-oxygen placement, the cells are forced to ferment. This is partially what it means when brewers ferment there beer. Our bodies use cellular respiration, to produce ATP, as our primary source of energy during normal activity. Although when we exert large amounts of energy all at once like running sprints would do, the normal cellular respiration would be unable to keep up with the required amount of oxygen to create ATP, therefore fermentation begins to assist making ATP.

Cells use enzymes as biological catalysts to increase or accelerate the rate of reactions, such as those in photosynthesis or glycolysis. This allows reactions to occur under conditions that sustain life: An enzyme is simply a catalyst; also something extra that’s only purpose is to speed a process up that would otherwise take a very long time. Our bodies have copious amounts of these enzymes whose only purpose is to speed up needed reactions and bonds between separate chemicals throughout the body.

This bonding process is completed through what is known as enzyme substrate interactions. (Enzyme, 2005) An enzyme-substrate is most easily explained as being an extremely specific key whole in which only a specific enzyme has access to, allowing that enzyme to enter the key whole and pushing to molecules into one. An enzyme-substrate complex substrate undergoes a chemical reaction forming a new product. The substrate still has the ability to break away from the enzyme at this point allowing it the ability to form with a different substrate.

An enzyme product is simply a solution. The eventual mating of two chemicals to bond together forms a new enzyme product. Enzyme activity is regulated a couple of different ways, one is known as allosteric inhibition and the other is known as competitive inhibition. Competitive inhibitors bind with the active site forcing the substrate to compete with it, hence the title competitive inhibition. Allosteric inhibition is when an ion bonds to something physically on the enzyme, no on the site, changing the shape of the enzyme. (Enzyme, 2005)?

References Aerobic respiration. (2010). In The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. Retrieved from http://www. credoreference. com. proxy. cecybrary. com/entry/heliconhe/aerobic_respiration Enzyme. (2005). In The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www. credoreference. com. proxy. cecybrary. com/entry/hmsciencedict/enzyme Photosynthesis. (2005). In The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www. credoreference. com. proxy. cecybrary. com/entry/hmsciencedict/photosynthesis