Introduction Humans are an organization’s greatest assets; without them, everyday business functions such as managing cash flow, making business transactions, communicating through all forms of media, and dealing with customers could not be completed. Humans and the potential they possess drive an organization. Today’s organizations are continuously changing. Organizational change impacts not only the business but also its employees.
In order to maximize organizational effectiveness, human potential—individuals’ capabilities, time, and talents—must be managed. Human resource management works to ensure that employees are able to meet the organization’s goals. Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organizations. It is responsible for bringing people into the organization, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labors, and solving problems that arise.
The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Other activities of HRM also include:. 1. Recruitment and Selection (Staffing).
In terms of recruitment and selection it is important to consider carrying out a thorough job analysis to determine the level of skills/technical abilities, competencies, flexibility of the employee required etc. At this point it is important to consider both the internal and external factors that can have an impact on the recruitment of employees. The external factors are those out-with the powers of the organization and include issues such as current and future trends of the labor market e. g. kills, education level, government investment into industries etc. On the other hand internal influences are easier to control, predict and monitor, for example management styles or even the organizational culture. Job analysis is completed to determine activities, skills, and knowledge required of an employee for a specific job. Job analyses are “performed on three occasions: (1) when the organization is first started. (2) when a new job is created. (3) when a job is changed as a result of new methods, new procedures, or new technology.
Jobs can be analyzed through the use of questionnaires, observations, interviews, employee recordings, or a combination of any of these methods. Two important tools used in defining the job are: (1) job description, which identifies the job, provides a listing of responsibilities and duties unique to the job, gives performance standards, and specifies necessary machines and equipment; and (2) Job specification, which states the minimum amount of education and experience needed for performing the job
Someone (e. g. , a department manager) or some event (e. g. , an employee’s leaving) within the organization usually determines a need to hire a new employee. In large organizations, an employee requisition must be submitted to the HR department that specifies the job title, the department, and the date the employee is needed. From there, the job description can be referenced for specific job related qualifications to provide more detail when advertising the position—either internally, externally, or both.
Not only must the HR department attract qualified applicants through job postings or other forms of advertising, but it also assists in screening candidates’ resumes and bringing those with the proper qualifications in for an interview. The final say in selecting the candidate will probably be the line manager’s, assuming all Equal Employment Opportunity requirements are met. Other ongoing staffing responsibilities involve planning for new or changing positions and reviewing current job analyses and job descriptions to make sure they accurately reflect the current position. . Performance Appraisals Once a talented individual is brought into an organization, another function of HRM comes into play—creating an environment that will motivate and reward exemplary performance. One way to assess performance is through a formal review on a periodic basis, generally annually, known as a performance appraisal or performance evaluation. Because line managers are in daily contact with the employees and can best measure performance, they are usually the ones who conduct the appraisals.