Employees at any level many time experience a sense of frustration because low level of wages, poor working conditions, unfavourable terms of employment, inhuman treatement by their superiors & the like whereas managerial personnel feel frustrated because of alienation over their condition of employment , interpersonal conflicts, role conflicts, Job pressure , lack of freedom , absence of challenging work, etc. QWL means different things to different people, J. Richard & J.
Loy define QWL as ” the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy mportant personnel needs through their experience in the organization. ” In the search for improved productivity, manager & executives alike are discovering the important contribution of QWL. Hackman & suttle describe QWL from varied viewpoints. From a professional view point , it refers to industrial democracy, increase workewrs participation in corporate decision making , or culmination of the goals of human realations.
In terms of management perspective, it relates to a variety of efforts to improve productivity through improvements in the human , rather than he capital or technological inputs of production. From standpoint of the characteristics of individual workers , it refers to the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experience in the organization. From the unions, perspective , it is a more equitable sharing of the income and resources of the work of organization, and more human & healthier working conditions.
DIMENSIONS OF STUDY : Quality of work life improvement are defined as any activity which takes place at very level of organization which seeks greater organizational effectiveness through enhancement of human dignity and growth a process through which the stockholders in the organization management, union and employees- learn how to work together to better to determine for themselves what actions, changes & improvements are desirable and workable in order to achive twin & simultaneous goals of an improve quality of life at work for all members of organization & greater effectiveness for the company and unions.
Trade union claim that they are responsible for the improvements in various facilities to workers hereas management takes credit for improved salaries, benefits & facilities. However, HR manager has identified specific issues in QWL. Klott Mundick& Schuster suggested major QWL issues. They are: (1) Pay & Employment on permanent basis: Good pay still dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction. Various alternative means for providing wages should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index , increase in levels & rates of income tax & profession tax.
QWL must be build around an equitable pay programs . in uture more workers may want to participate in the profits of the firm. Employment of workers on casual, temporary, probationary basis gives them sense of insecurity. On the other hand , employment on the other basis gives them security & leads to higher order QWL. (2) Occupational Stress : Stress is a condition of strain on one’s emotions, thought process ; physical condition . stress is determined by the worker’s abilities & nature and match with the Job requirements.
Stress is cause due irritability, offering prestigious designation to the Jobs, providing well furnish amp; decent work places, offering membership in clubs or association , providing vehicles, offering vacation trips, or means to recognize the employees hyper- excitation or depression unstable behaviour, fatigue, stuttering, trembling psychometric pains, heavy smoking & drug abuse. Stress adversely effects on employee’s productivity. The HR manager, in order to minimize the stress has to identifiy, prevent ; tackle the problem.
He may arrange the treatment of problem with the health unit or provide some stress buster activities during the hectic work schedule. 3) Organizational Health programs : Organizational health programs aim at educating employees about health problems means of maintaining ; improving health etc. These programme covers drinking and smoking cessation ( if it is affecting the productivity of employee ) , hypertension control , other forms of cardiovascular risk reduction, family planning etc.
Effective implementation of these progrme results in reduction in absenteeism, hospitalization ,disability, excessive Job turnover ; premature death. It should also covers relaxation, physical exercise , diet control etc. 4) Alternative work schedule : Alternative work schedule including work at home , flexible working hours, staggered hours , and reduced work week, part time employment which may be introduced for the convenience ; comfort of the workers as the work schedule which offers the individual the leisure time , flexible hours of work is preferred. 5) Participative Management ; control of work : Trade unions and workers participation in management and decision making improves QWL . workers also feel that they have control their work, use their skills ; make a real contribution to the Job if they re allowed to participate in creative and decision making process. (6) Recognition : recognizing the employee as a human being rather than as a labourer increases the QWL .
Participative management , awarding the rewarding systems , congratulating the employees for their achievement , Job enrichment, offering prestigious designation to the Jobs, providing well furnish and decent work places,offering membership in club or associations , providing vehicles , offering vacation trips, or some means to recognize the employees . (7) Congenial Worker- supervisor Relation : Harmonious supervisor- worker relations give the worker essence of social association , belongingness, achievement of worker results etc. This in turn led to better QWL. 8) Grievance procedure : workers have a sence of fair treatement when the company gives them opportunity to ventilate their grievances and represent their case succinctly rather than settling the problems arbitrarily. (9) Adequacy of resources : Resources should match with stated objective ; otherwise , employee will not be able to attain them . This results in the employee dissatisfaction and lower QWL. 10) Seniority ; merit in promotions : seniority is generally taken as the basis of promotion in case of operating employees .
Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people whereas seniority cum- merit is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees. The promotional policies ; activities should be fair 7 Just in order to ensure higher QWL. (11) Welfare Benefits : Since workers are now better organized , educated ; vociferous, they demand social security ; welfare benefits as a matter of right which were once considered a part of bargaining process.