The Bonds of Empire, 1660-1750 o Rebellion and War, 1660-1713 ? Before Restoration (1660), England made little attempt to weld colonies ? Royal Centralization, 1660-1688 • Restoration monarchs disliked representative government • Charles II rarely called parliament into session after 1674, and none after 1681 • James II wanted to rule as absolute monarch o Meant he would never face an elected legislation • These 2 kings had little sympathy for Am.
RI, and Plymouth into Dominion of New Eng. o 1688= NY and the Jerseys came in o Sir Edmund Andros became governor of Dominion of New Eng. ? The Glorious Revolution in England and America, 1688-1689 • Charles II converted to Catholicism on deathbed • Eng. olerated James’ conversion to Catholicism b/c his heirs (Mary and Anne) were Anglican • Bloodless revolution of 1688=Glorious revolution o Created limited monarchy in Eng. ? Promised to summon parliament once a yr. , sign all its bills, and respect traditional civil liberties o William and Mary (now king and queen of eng. after they overthrew James) dismantled Dominion of New Eng. o NY rebelled with Leisler’s Rebellion ?
The Enlightenment • In 1750 the Enlightenment’s greatest contributions to Am. life still lay in the future. A quarter-century later, Anglo-Am. drew on the enlightenment’s revolutionary ideas as they declared their independence from Britain and created the foundations of a new nation • It was an age of optimism, tempered by the realistic recognition of the sad state of the human condition and the need for major reforms.
The Enlightenment was less a set of ideas than it was a set of attitudes. At its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals. ? The Great Awakening • In New England, the Great Awakening was influential among many Congregationalists • In the Middle and Southern colonies, the Awakening was influential among Presbyterians and other dissenting Protestants. • A time of increased religious activity. The revival began with Jonathan Edwards, a well-educated theologian and Congregationalist minister from Northampton, Massachusetts, who came from Puritan and Calvinist roots, but emphasized the importance and power of immediate, personal religious experience. • Edwards’ sermons were powerful and attracted a large following. o “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” is his most famous sermon. • The Methodist preacher George Whitefield, visiting from England, continued the movement, traveling across the colonies and preaching in a more dramatic and emotional style, accepting everyone into his audiences.