Inadequate recruitment can lead to labour shortages, or problems in management decision making. Recruitment is however not just a simple selection process but also requires management decision making and extensive planning to employ the most suitable manpower. Competition among business organisations for recruiting the best potential has increased focus on innovation, and management decision making and the selectors aim to recruit only the best candidates who would suit the corporate culture, ethics and climate specific to the organisation.
The process of recruitment does not however end with application and selection of the right people but involves maintaining and retaining the employees chosen. (State Government of Victoria State Services Authority, 2008) The housekeeping department is the most important department in hospitality world. Housekeeping is responsible for cleaning the hotel’s guestrooms and public areas. This department has the largest amount staff, and its operations are the most influential from both external and internal factors. Thus they have an ever chancing requirement for staff. RECRUITMENT
French and Rees (2010) Defines recruitment as, “a process to discover the sources of man power to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce. ” Edwin B. Flippo defined recruitment as “the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. ” In simple words recruitment can be defined as a ‘linking function’-joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs.
The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. For a more detailed specification: (see Attachment 1) The process 1. A need is created through any number of factors within an establishment. From the change in seasonal occupancy, personal factors of staff or managerial requirements. As in the case of the ABS Hotel, a member of the housekeeping department has been granted a transfer due to personal issues. Now a position has been created that needs to be filled.
The HOD of the department will now access the vacancy and if need be, he will file a request for the recruitment of a new staff member. (See Attachment 2) 2. The request will be filled and accessed by the Hotel’s Human resources Manager, and he will then have a meeting with the HOD from the Housekeeping department to discuss the need for a new staff member. If the HR manager finds the request valid he will then go about discussing the positions measurable standard with the HOD. This will result in the Job analysis of the required room attendant by which applicants will be measured. See Attachment 3) 3. The HR manager must then apply to the Hotels Chief Financial Officer if there are funds available for both the recruitment process and the annual salary of the new staff member. As is the case with the current position at the ABC Hotel, the annual salary can be paid as it would have been paid to the previous room attendant. 4. Once the CFO has validated the financial aspect of the request, the HR manager and the HOD of the housekeeping department must apply to the General Manager for his approval of the recruitment. . If the GM denies their request, the process will stop. If the GM accepts the request the HOD’s part of recruitment has been completed, and the HR manager starts the formal process of recruitment. 6. The HR manager does research into the Labour market, Economy and the Expansion of the company. The Labour market’s geographical and demographical information will assist the HR manager in calculating the environment were the best suitable candidates can be found and through use of which measure can they best be reached.
The studying of the economical present and future will assist the manager in accessing if it would be affordable to hire the new employee and what the market rate for the positions salary is. The growth of the company has the biggest impact on the recruitment process, for if the company has to decline or plans to “float” through the following year then the appointment of a new staff member will result in a profit expenditure, which renders the recruitment process a loss. As is the current state of the ABC Hotel the three factors are all positive and thus the HR manager will continue with the recruitment process. . The HR manager must utilise the company resources to decide whether to advertise the vacancy internally, externally and by which technique to best reach the required labour market. [ For an explanation of internal-, and external advertising, (see Attachment 1) ] 8. The HR manager must now utilise the information gathered from the previous two steps to thoroughly plan the advertisement. All relevant information regarding the position needs to be within the method of advertising and must create a positive image for the organisation. (see Attachment 4) 9.
If the HR Manager has done his job correctly, persons will apply for the position. SELECTION The size of the labour market, the image of the company, the place of posting, the nature of job, the compensation package and a host of other factors influence the manner of aspirants are likely to respond to the recruiting efforts of the company. Through the process of recruitment the company tries to locate prospective employees and encourages them to apply for vacancies at various levels. Recruiting, thus, provides a pool of applicants for selection. Selection is defined by French (2012, p. 76) as the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organisation. The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. The purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job in an organisation best, to find out which job applicant will be successful, if hired. To meet this goal, the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age, qualifications, skills, experience, etc. the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates.
The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through successive stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched to a job is very important because it is directly affects the amount and quality of employee’s work. Any mismatch in this regard can cost an organisation a great deal of money, time and trouble, especially, in terms of training and operating costs. In course of time, the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration. He may even circulate negative information about the company, causing incalculable harm to the company in the long run.
Effective election, therefore, demands constant monitoring of the ‘fit’ between people the job. (French and Rees, 2012, p. 176) The Process 1. The Curriculum Vitae’ of applicants are received. 2. The applications will now be scrutinised according to the measurable standard. 3. A database is created wherein all the information of applicants are entered and stored. This database is a very essential and useful tool. It has all the information applicants included on their CV’s, this information can be used as a record of how applicants were chosen or declined.
It holds the record to prove that the selection process was neither biased nor discriminative and has complied with both the Labour Relations – and the Employment Equity Acts. It is also a useful reference base which can be used for future manpower forecasting or a base of possible employees for future positions. Thus saving on recruitment costs. 4. The applications are now sorted by the HR manager into three “piles”. Successful-, For Review- and Unsuccessful applicants. 5. The unsuccessful applicants must be sent a letter of their unsuccessful attempt.
The letter will contain the reason the establishment declined their application and will wish them well for future applications. 6. From the Successful applicants a short list will now be drawn up, by both the HR Manager and the Housekeeping HOD, to show the best possible candidates for the position. This can sometimes be a difficult and time consuming process. To ease the process follow these guidelines. (see Attachment 5) 7. Once the best possible candidates have been chosen from the shortlist, they will be telephonically contacted and informed that they are a possible candidate for the position.
During the phone call a short pre-interview will be conducted to confirm the critical information with the candidate and to inform them of their formal interview. 8. Application forms are sent via email or post to the candidates for them to formally apply for the position. These need to be sent back to the establishment as they will be used to gather information on candidates to better structure the interviews. 9. Using the candidates I. D. numbers a background check will be done on applicants for criminal record or blacklisting. According to JHON BOTHA, director of the Production Management Institute, this has become a necessary step due to the Labour laws in South Africa. Business Day October 11th, 2012. see Attachment 6 ] 10. The HR manager and HOD of the Housekeeping department must setup the formal interview structure and question the candidates. 11. After the interview the candidates will write a short aptitude test to see if their norms, values and attitudes align with the establishments. 12. The HR manager and The HOD will now decide on the best candidate for the position.
If none of the candidates are suitable for the position, they may refer back to the candidates which didn’t make the short list or the applicants for review and repeat steps 8-11. If no candidate or applicant meets the requirements, then the recruitment and selection process must be reviewed and restarted. 13. If a candidate has been chosen for the position, they will be informed of their success telephonically and given further instructions regarding their first day of employment and induction. If the chosen candidate declines the offer then the HR manager must choose another and repeat step 12 and 13. 4. The unsuccessful candidates will receive a phone call informing them of their unsuccessful attempt but will assure them that they will be considered for future positions. INDUCTION Induction can be defined as the first step towards gaining an employees’ commitment, it is aimed at introducing the job and organization to the recruit and him or her to the organization. It involves orientation and training of the employee in the organizational culture, and showing how he or she is interconnected to (and interdependent on) everyone else in the organization.
See also orientation. (Target Selection 1986) The Induction process has several important objectives (Grobler et al. 2002) : •Acquainting new employees with job procedures. •Establishing relationships with co-workers. •Creating a sense of belonging among employees. •Acquainting new employees with the goals of the organisation. •Indicating to the employees the preferred means by which these goals should be achieved. •Identifying the basic responsibilities of the job. •Indicating the required behaviour patterns for effective job performance. (Grobler et al. 2002)
The Process Day 1: Introduction to the establishment and work area – Person Responsible: HR Manager •Mission, Vision, Objectives of work area •How the work area fits in to the wider establishment •All key operational and social areas to be visited. Introduction to other members of staff – Person Responsible: HR Manager •Go through organisation chart •Discuss roles and responsibilities of staff in general terms. •May also want to extend time to allow visits to key contacts out with work area. Introduction to the other teams within the Work area – Person Responsible –
Line Manager •Purpose/Activities of the other teams/work areas •How the team fits in to the work area •How the work area fits into the University Day 2: Terms and Conditions – Person Responsible – Line Manager •Ensure new start has viewed and understood information contained in the Information for New Employees this contains important information on terms and conditions. Performance Standards – Person Responsible – Line Manager •Outline specifics of job role – (job description) •Define goals, objectives, and expectations •Review probation and performance and development review/ ADR/ appraisal process.
Culture of the Work area – Person Responsible – Line Manager/Nominee •Make new start aware of local arrangements regarding hours of work, holiday requests, sickness procedure, after hours working, dress code, lunch arrangements, etc. •Other University procedures e. g. internet and e-mail usage, transportation and parking, etc. Office Systems – Person Responsible – Line Manager/Nominee •Review processes for using office equipment such as: computer, telephone, voicemail, fax, printer, photocopier, etc. •Review processes for using other university equipment/systems such as: libraries, laboratories, open access computers, etc. Review computer security, and software usage. •Consider environmental efficiencies (waste, recycling, energy) Health and Safety – Person Responsible – Health ; Safety Co-ordinator/ Line Manager •Physical – fire exits, fire alarms, fire evacuation procedure, fire-training arrangements, manual handling, first-aid arrangements, VDU usage, and other arrangements as required. Day 3 and 4 Job Specific Training and Development -Person Responsible – Line Manager/Nominee •Role specific development needs should be reviewed and a suitable programme of training should be planned that aligns the individual’s skills to their core duties. Staff with line management responsibilities should be clear as to their duties and attend any relevant training. •Outline the use of annual performance and development reviews/ ADR as one method for determining on-going role specific development needs. •Introduce University wide training and development opportunities available to staff. •Review use of personal development planning tools (i. e. PDP) Week 1 – 4: The new employee should be partnered with a buddy / mentor and work with and alongside them to learn the operations, in’s-and-out’s and daily routines of the position. Week 5 – 6:
The new employee should now be able to function independently, but will still require supervision. Week 7: Monitoring and Evaluation – Person Responsible – Line Manager •It is important that the Induction programme is monitored and reviewed. •Throughout the period regular review meetings should be held and any adjustments made. •The new employee should be informally interviewed to access his progress and experience of the working environment. Week 8 – 12: Probation -Person Responsible – Line Manager For new staff the Probation Policy will apply, at the end of three months the new employee will now be a permanent employee.
This will have ensured continued efficiency and productivity. CONCLUSION At the end of what could be a short or long process the ABC Hotel will now have the new room attendant which would have fit in perfectly into the organisation to ensure continued productivity and efficiency. If each of the steps of all three processes of Recruitment, Selection and Induction have been followed and done according to the Hotel’s policies and procedures and the standards set by management then the present and future manpower planning will be a success.
An awareness of issues and concepts within this area is an important tool for all those involved with leading, managing and developing people – even if they are not human resource managers per se. A recognition of the importance of this aspect of people management is not new, and ‘success’ in this field has often been linked with the avoidance of critical failure factors including undesirable levels of staff turnover and claims of discrimination from unsuccessful job applicants.
It has been argued here that it is also possible to identify aspects of recruitment and selection which link with critical success factors in the 21st century context, differentiating organisational performance and going some way to delivering employees who can act as ‘thinking performers’. It is proposed, for example, that a competencies approach focusing on abilities needed to perform a job well may be preferable to the use of a more traditional matching of job and person. (French 2010)