Holistic development: The first month Physical development The gross motor skills that the baby of 0-1 month old will develop is that the baby lies supine (on his or her back) and the fine motor skills will be the baby turns his or her head towards the light and stares at bright or shiny objects. Communication and language development Babies need to respond to sounds, especially familiar voices.
And babies need to share language experiences and cooperate with others from birth onwards. From the start babies need other people. Intellectual development Babies explore through their senses and through their own activity and movement. Touch From the beginning babies feel pain. Sound Even a new born baby will turn to a sound. The baby might become still and listen to a low sound, or quicken his or her movements when he or she hears a high sound. Taste The baby likes sweet tastes, e. g. breast milk. Smell The baby turns to the smell of the breast. Sight
The baby can focus on objects 20cm away. Emotional and social development A baby’s first smile in definite response to carer is usually around 3-6 weeks. Also the baby often imitates certain facial expressions. This is showing that the baby is starting to develop being able to respond to different things. Holistic development: from one to four months Physical development Some of the gross motor skills that the babies develop from four to eight weeks are: the baby can now turn from side to back, and can also lift its head briefly from the prone position.
Some of the fine motor skills that the babies develop from four to eight weeks are; the baby turns its head towards the light and stares at bright or shiny objects. Some of the gross motor skills the baby develops form eight to twelve weeks are; when lying supine, the baby’s head is in a central position and it can also lift its head and chest off a bed in prone position, supported on forearms. Some of the fine motor skills the baby develops from eight to twelve weeks are; the baby moves his or her head to follow adult movements and the baby watches his or her hands and plays with his or her fingers.
Communication and language development From four to eight weeks the baby recognises the carer and familiar objects, makes non-crying noises such as cooing and gargling and then moves on to often sucking or licking its lips when he or she hears the sound of food in preparation. From eight to twelve weeks the baby is still distressed by sudden loud noises and often sucks or licks its lips when he or she hears the sound of food in preparation. Intellectual development The baby recognises differing speech sounds and by three months the baby can even imitate low or high pitched sounds.
Emotional and social development The baby will smile in response to an adult and the baby enjoys sucking. Then the baby shows enjoyment at caring routines such as bath time. Holistic development from four to six months Physical development Some of the gross motor skills; the baby is beginning to use a palmar grasp and can transfer objects from hand to hand. It is very interested in all activity and everything is taken to the mouth. Some of the fine motor skills; the baby now has good head control and is beginning to sit with support. It can roll over from back to side and is beginning to reach for objects.
And when supine the baby plays with his or her own feet. Communication and language development The baby becomes more aware of others so he or she communicates more and more. As the baby listens, he or she imitates sounds he or she can her and reacts to the tone of someone’s voice. For example, the baby might become upset by an angry tone, or cheered by a happy tone. Intellectual development By four months the baby reaches for objects, which suggest they recognise and judge the distance in relation to the size of the object. The baby prefers complicated things to look at from five to six months and enjoys bright colours.
The baby also knows that he or she has one mother. The baby is disturbed if he or she is shown several images of his or her mother at the same time. The baby realises that people are permanent before they realise that objects are. Emotional and social development The baby shows trust and security and has recognisable sleep patterns. Holistic development from six to nine months Some of the gross motor skills; the baby can roll from front to back. He or she may attempt to crawl but will often end up sliding backwards. Also the baby may grasp their feet and place them in his or her mouth.
Some of the fine motor skills; the baby is very alert to people and objects. The baby is beginning to use a pincer grasp with thumb and finger, and can transfer toys from one hand to the other and looks for fallen objects. Communication and language development Babble becomes tuneful, like the lilt of the language the baby can hear. They become to understand words like ‘up’ and ‘down’, raising their arms to be lifted up and using appropriate gestures. The baby may also be able to repeat sounds. Intellectual development The baby understands signs, e. g. the bib means that food is coming.
From eight to nine months the baby shows that he or she knows objects exist when they have gone out of sight, even under test conditions. This is called the concept of object constancy, or the object permanence test (Piaget). The baby is also fascinated by the way objects move. Emotional and social development The baby can manage to feed him- or herself using his or her fingers. They are now more wary of strangers, sometimes showing stranger fear. For example if a stranger comes close to the baby and it moves away towards another person, this shows that the baby is fearful of strangers and gains security from the person it moves to.
Also the baby might show distress when his or her mother leaves. For example if the mother leaves the room and the baby starts crying, then this shows that the baby feels insecure when the mother is out of sight. Holistic development from nine to twelve months Physical development Gross motor skills; the baby will now be mobile- may be crawling, bear-walking, bottom shuffling or even walking. The baby can sit up on his or her own and lean forward to pick things up. Also the baby may crawl upstairs and onto low items of furniture and may even bounce in rhythm to music.
Fine motor skills; the baby’s pincer grasp is now well developed and he or she can pick things up and pull them towards him or her. The baby can poke with one finger and will point to desired objects. They can also clasp hands and imitate adults’ actions. Communication and language development The baby can follow simple instructions e. g. kiss teddy. Word approximations appear e. g. ‘hee haw’ to indicate a donkey, or more typically ‘mumma’, ‘dadda’ and ‘bye-bye’ in English speaking contexts.
Also the tuneful babble develops into ‘jargon’ and the baby makes his or her voice go up and down just as people do when they talk to each other. Intellectual development The baby is beginning to develop images. Memory develops and the baby and remember the past. The baby can anticipate the future. This give it some understanding of routine daily sequences, e. g. after a feed, changing, and a sleep with teddy. Also the baby imitates actions, sounds, gestures and moods after an event is finished, e. g. imitate a temper tantrum he or she saw a friend have the previous day, wave bye-bye remembering Grandma has gone to the shops.
Emotional and social development The baby enjoys songs and action rhymes, still likes to be near to a familiar adult but will also play alone for long periods of time. Spiritual aspects of a baby’s development Even a tiny baby experiences a sense of self, and values people who are loved by them. Spiritually is about the developing sense of relationship with self, relating to others ethically, morally and humanly and a relationship with the universe. The baby can drink from a cup with help, and shows definite likes and dislikes at mealtimes and bedtimes.
Also the baby will start to cooperate when being dressed and likes to look at him- or herself in a mirror (plastic safety mirror). Holistic development from one to two years Physical development Gross motor skills (15 months); the baby probably walks alone now, with feet wide apart and arms raised to maintain balance. He or she is likely to fall over and often sit down suddenly. The baby can also probably manage stairs and steps, but will need supervision. Gross motor skills (18 months); the child walks confidently and is able to stop without falling. The child can also kneel, squat, climb and carry things around with him or her.
Fine motor skills (15months); the baby can build with a few bricks and arrange toys on the floor, can hold a crayon in palmar grasp and turns several pages of a book at once, and can also point to a desired object. Fine motor skills (18 months); the child can thread large beads, build a tower of several cubes and uses a pincer grasp to pick up small objects. Communication and language development The child begins to talk with words or sign language, and by 18 months, the child enjoys trying to sing as well as to listen to songs and rhymes. Action songs (e. g. ‘pat-a-cake’) are much loved. Intellectual development
The child understands the names of objects and can follow simple instructions, the child also learns about other things through trial and error. Emotional and social development The child begins to have a longer memory and develops a sense of identity (I am me). Also the child expresses his or her needs in words and gestures and enjoys being able to walk, and is eager to try to get dressed – ‘Me do it! ’ Holistic development from two to three years Physical development Gross motor skills; the child is very mobile, can run safely and can climb up onto furniture. The child can walk up and downstairs, usually two feet to a step.
The child then moves on to being able to jump from a low step, walk backwards and sideways and can stand and walk on his or her tiptoes and stand on one foot. In my workplace all of the children this age are able to do all of these things. But the girls are all more developed than the boys. For example, with have a boy that is three years of age, and a girl that’s the same. The girl is able to write her name, speak fluently, help other children who aren’t as well developed as her and she even tells me when someone is doing something wrong. Whereas the boy can hardly speak yet, and when he does no one can understand what he’s saying.
Michael Gurian, a noted educator and author, has shown through research that “hard-wiring and socialized gender differences affect how boys and girls learn. ” Simply put, male and female brains are equal but different. “Boys use the right hemisphere more, and girls the left,” (Gurian, M. 2007) Fine motor skills; the child can draw circles, lines and dots using preferred hand. The child can pick up tiny objects using a fine pincer grasp. The child then moves on to being able to build tall towers of bricks or blocks and can control a pencil using thumb and first two fingers (a dynamic tripod grasp).