Single Party States Notes

Single Party States notes From: Topic 3- Themes and Exams Tips Chapter: “Origins and development of authoritarian and single party states” “What constitutes an authoritarian or single-party state? ” Country or state to be classed as an authoritarian or single party state: * Only one legal political party A leader chosen by or from the military following a revolution * Group or leader that controls the state even though there are existing parties * Jean Kirkpatrick (US ambassador-United Nations) once expressed that authoritarian state was “better than” a totalitarian state- a chance that it would move towards democracy (p. o. v expressed during the Cold War) Characteristics in common- authoritarian or single-party: * Little-no freedom of speech * No freedom of: * Assembly (government must approve meetings) * To travel abroad No idependent judicial system * All sources of information censored * Any idea against the regime will be harshly punished (opposition to them) * “A leader whose popularity is reinforced by personality cult” Not all states the share charactersistcs some are less oppressive but they all share the strict control over the freedom of the people and use different methods to hold on to power. The age of Kings and Emperors ended with WWI 20th century one of the bloodiest century in history- includes 2 major world wars Left and right wing:

Left- wing: Describes the single party, leaders and states that are communist or socialist. Example: Nasser, Stalin, Mao, Castro and Neyerere Right wing: Most fascist leaders of the 20th century began their political careers as members of socialist parties. Fascist leaders and states – right wing Examples: Hitler, Mussoluni and Franco Policies supportive of capitalism as an economic system, ultra nationalist, some cases they promoted religion as a way to unite the people. Right wing ideologies| Left wing ideologies| Facism (in Italy and Nazism-Germany) * Socialist (intended to appeal lower classes) * Strongly nationalistic and considered communism to be a threat| * Widespread ideology (20th C) was communism * “All people are equal” * “No private property to protect” * Will to bring the ideal state| Socialism: Characteristics: redistribution of wealth through taxation, the state owns the major industries like coal and steel, the state owns the “monopolies” such as the water, transportation and communications, free education and health care for all. This criterion became known as ‘welfare state’. (Gov. hould control ensure the basic standard living for al citizens) Stages of communism: 1) Primitive communisms: “No monopoly over the means of production” 2) Feudalism: “Agricultural-based communities developed into kingdoms and powerful rulers took ownership of the land and the people who farmed it” 3) Capitalism: “commercial activities- trading in manufactured goods” 4) Communism: no private properties, people contribute with their skills, taking only what they needed. No laws to protect wealth and property From States, Governments and Ideologies:

The State: * Sovereign state: is independent of all others Way in which is governed- Constitution: basic laws- lay down the power and duties of many institutions and officials of government * Rule of law * Arbitrary government * Sovereignty * States -3 kinds: Unitary states, federal and confederations * Held state – embodies the nation and represents it * Monarchy, republic * Legitimacy, device right of kings (constitutional monarchs) president (republic state) Government: * “Those persons and institution of state which exercise the power in accordance with the constitution” * Head of the state— head of the government (prime ministers) * Executive, cabinet Legislative—making laws (unicameral, bicameral) * Separation of powers, presidential system of government, parliamentary system of government Changes of Government By legal means: (elections) majority system and proportional system—coalition By force: rebellion, revolution, provisional government, constituent assembly, new constitution, and peaceful revolution Political Ideologies:( framework theories) Implicit ideologies (propaganda designed etc) * Conservatism * Liberalism ———————————————– Reformist Ideologies: critique of existing society, describe the ideal society would be like, prescriptions from the living situation to the ideal * Socialism: reaction to injustices of the capitalist economic system (social democrats, syndicalist, revolutionary socialists) Marxism: “an industrialized society, the working class would revolt and take over the ruling class, and would in effect, create a classes society * Anarchism: fight against the order, don’t want any authority Incomplete Ideologies: * Racism * Nationalism * Social Darwinism From: Authoritarianism, Fascism and Totalitarianism

Authoritarianism,| Fascism| Totalitarianism| * Ruled by threat or fear * “Black or white” posture (in or out) * Outlawed the opposition * Enforce their control by torture, execution, etc. * Motivated by patriotism * Resorting law and order * Defending country against the threat of Bolshevism * Leading a regeneration of the nation * Employed and censored the media| * Lower middle class radicalism * Deliberate diversion of the workers * Radical populist solution to the problem of restoring the “hegemony” of the dominant class| * Subordinate all aspects od the individual’s life to the authority of the gov. Official ideology * Single mass party * Terroristic police control of the population * Monopoly control of the media * Monopoly control of the arms * Central control of the economy“worthless- creation of Cold War propaganda- designed to tie the Soviet system together with that of the Nazis” – some historians|