Social change is defined as the transformation of culture and social institutions over time (pg. 479). Some features of social change may be that it is unplanned, controversial, or happen at a fast pace. There are four types of social movements. The first is an alternative social movement. This type of social movement happens when the change that is sought is limited. An example of this type of movement is the Promise Keepers. This group promotes a more spiritual way of living for men and for them to better support their families. The second type of social movement is a redemptive one.
The purpose of this social change is to help certain people redeem their lives. An example of this type of social movement is SADD, Students Against Destructive Decisions. This is a movement trying to stop students from making bad choices, such as underage drinking or other drug use. Third is a reformative social movement, in which it targets everybody but is a limited change. Getting people to reduce, reuse, recycle, is a type of social movement to protect the environment. Finally, a revolutionary social movement is when a big change is requested by a whole society.
An example of this is when a Communist party is pushing for the government to control the entire economy. Modernization is defined as the process of social change that is begun by industrialization (pg. 485). Four features of modernization include the decline of small or traditional communities, the expansion of personal choice, the increase of social diversity, and a focus on the future. Examples of modernization include the expantion of cities in America, the way we communicate, religious beliefs not being as important, and transportation methods.
Today there are more people living in cities than there is living in the countryside. Before the creation of the internet and computers, we would have to communicate by mail or phone. Now we can type up an email and talk to someone in another country within seconds. Religion is not as important to many people as it used to be. Churches are shutting down and many people have different beliefs. We used to have to get around by walking, horse and buggy, or by ship if you were going to another country. Now almost every household has their own car and we have the option of flight to get across the ocean.