structural functionalism with the Marxist and the noe-marxist theories

This essay is aimed at comparing and contrasting structural functionalism with the Marxist and the noe-marxist theories to social change, how they best describe social change in less developed countries; in this case Zambia. The paper is to also outline the relevance of the two approaches and come up with one that offers the best approach as in the case of Zambia. Social change refers to the structural transformation of political, social, cultural, and economic systems and institutions to create a more stable society.

It can also be defined as change in social structure, the nature of the institutions, social behavior or the social relations of the society or community of people. When behavior pattern changes in large numbers and is visible and sustained, it results in social change. Once there is deviance from culturally inherited values, rebellion against the established system may result causing change in social order, any event or action that affects a group of individuals who have shared values of characteristics (Herman, Nancy J and Reynolds, Larry T: 1994).

Structural functionalism is defined as a sociological theory that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to meet individual biological needs ( Giddens, 2006). Structural functionalism to sociological analysis is basically an equilibrium theory. The system is said to be in equilibrium when its component parts are so compatible with each other, denying an outside disturbance, none of them will change its position or relation to others in any significant way.

An equilibrium system is said to be stable when a slight change in external conditions creates internal variations whose own effects is equal and opposite to the initial disturbance, thereby moving the system back to its former position of rest. It is said to be unstable when the initial disturbance creates movement that feeds on its relationships, thereby displacing the system further from its original position of rest (Davies, K:1959). Structural functionalism can also be defined as a sociological paradigm which addresses social functions and various elements of the social system perform in regard to the entire system.

Social structures are stressed and placed at the centre of analysis and social functions are deduced from these structures(ibid). Functionalist believe that one can compare society to a living organism, in that both society and a living organism are made up of interdependent working parts and systems that must function. Functionalists say that the different parts of society e. g family, education, religion, law and order, media etc. have to be seen in terms of contribution that they make to the functioning of the whole society.

This organism analogy sees the different parts of society working together to form a social system in the same way that the different parts of an organism form a cohesive functioning entity. In relation to the case of Zambia, structural functionalism is relevant in understanding social change. It is relevant in that it provides general guidelines for behavior in terms of norms. These institutions of society such as family, religion, the economy, law and order, the educational and political systems are major aspects of social structure.

A practical example of an institution that is relevant in Zambia is a family. According to Glencoe (1995;114), the family is the first social world a child encounters, and members are the mirror in which children begin to see themselves. It is the first group whose norms and values children adopt as their own and refer to in evaluating behavior. Historical analysis also demonstrates that across time, the family has provided many important functions for society.

Functionalists believe that mass formal education is an essential part of an industrial society, and that expansion of industrial society, and that expansion of the industrial economies brings a corresponding expansion in the education system, they also see the introduction of mass education as a response to the increasing demand of the industry. Educational institutions such as colleges, Universities and schools in Zambia help in the development process of Zambian society. Glencoe (1995:118) adds that in modern society, school is a primary agent for weaning children from home and introducing them to the larger society.

He further adds that educational institutions have rules and regulations to control those in there hence not only educating them but giving and teaching them rules that will help them live better lives in society. The mass media is one institution that is also very vital. The forms that reach large numbers of people in form of, Television, radio, and books are all important in that they contribute in being a watch dog, a channel of communication, an educative means and ways in which people express themselves (ibid).

Another example of social change is technology influx in recent years such as email, cell phones and online social networks. Each part of the institutions mentioned and listed does something to serve a function or purpose in the Zambia social change. People who employ functionalism view society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. The theory of belongs to a board theories that are referred to as radical theories of development. The theories are further explained in terms of materialism which are dialectical and historical.

By materialism Karl Marx meant that the economic structure of society was the foundation or basis on which the whole society is built (Andropove, V: 1983). In Marxist theories, the division of society into classes is determined by the position within the process of production. Economic development gives rise to these classes and assumes different relationships to the process of production. Marxism hence is the name given to the body of ideas, which in their totality provide a fully worked out theoretical basis for the struggle of the working class to attain a higher form of human society (ibid).

Class consciousness consists of the appropriate and rational reactions imputed to a particular typical position in the process of production. This consciousness is therefore, neither the sum nor the average of what is thought or felt by the single individuals who make up the class. The historical significant actions of the class as a whole are determined in the last resort by this consciousness and not by the thoughts of the individual. These actions can be understood only by reference to this consciousness (Klaus, W:1989). Karl Marx and Engels state 5 stages in which a human society has to pass through in order for it to develop.

These include primitive, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and communism. Primitive society is the first stage of development of human society and arises from the differentiation of man from the animal kingdom (Popkin, H. R: 1986). Feudalism is the second stage of social development according to Marxism. At this stage, the land lords and nobles comprised of dominant classes and the peasants or serfs that belonged to the exploited class. Capitalism is the third stage and it involves the private ownership of the means of production.

In capitalism, there is an emergence of two classes, that is, the bourgeoisies as the owners of capital and the proletariat as the working class (Johari, J: 1989). Socialism is the fourth stage under Marxism. In socialism, the state has an important role to play on the part of resource allocation. The state is responsible to ensure that all members of society have equal and equitable access to resources. The last stage is Communism according to Marxism. A communist society is one having neither class nor state and all resources in society are equally and equitably distributed. A Communist state can be referred to as a workers paradise.

The neo-Marxists on the other hand, after seeing the failure of working-class revolutions in Western Europe after World War I, chose the parts of Marx’s thought that might clarify social conditions that were not present when Marx was alive. They filled in what they perceived to be omissions in Marxism with ideas from other schools of thought. Neo-Marxists view class divisions under capitalism as more important than gender/sex divisions or issues of race and ethnicity. Neo-Marxism encompasses a group of beliefs that have in common rejection of economic or class determinism and a belief in at least the semiautonomy of the social sphere.

From the above information provided, it can be deduced that despite Marxism, and Neo-Marxism and the Structural functionalism having different approaches to social change, they both place an emphasis on the importance of society in which all the members benefit and the how the society develops as it improves on the living conditions of its people. Both Marxism, and Neo-Marxist and Structural functionalism emphasize that inequality should exist in order for social change to take place. In Marxism bourgeoisie pay the proletariat low wages for their labour.

Structural functionalists state that wages must be given to workers in order for them to carry out their work of which in most cases tend to be low. They also emphasize on the need of the use of force in the process of social change. In the Marxist theory, serfs are treated like slaves in that they are forced to do hard work by the land lords despite low wages. Force is used to control the serfs. In structural functionalism, people who go against the norms, values and rules governing a society are to be punished by some administration of justice.

In both Marxist, and Neo-Marxist and Structural functionalism, members of society have roles to play in order for society to develop and progress. This means that individuals are significant not only in themselves but also in terms of their position in patterns of social relations. One of the differences between Marxist, Neo-Marxist and the Structural functionalism is that in Marxism, social change occurs revolutionary while as for structural functionalism, social change occurs evolutionary without conflicts. Marxism holds the belief that in order for social change to take place, conflicts hould exist in order for society to progress. Unlike structural functionalism, Marxism emphasizes on formation of a society comprised of classes. The classes include the serfs and the land lords in feudalism, the proletariat and the bourgeoisies in capitalism. Structural functionalism emphasizes on different parts of society such institutions and organizations working together in order for society to survive while Marxism and Neo-Marxism states that members of society function for their survival and not necessarily for society, for example; the bourgeoisie and the proletariat in capitalism.

Unlike Marxism, structural functionalism does not contain a sense of agency that individuals are seen as puppets only acting as society requires and the most sophisticated forms of functionalism are based on highly developed concept of actions. In conclusion, structural functionalism better explains achievement of social change in less developed countries like Zambia as compared to the Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories to social change, the Marxist and Neo-Marxist do not offer a valid explanation in the case of Zambia because they advocated for socialism as the ultimate solution towards betterment of society.

Structural functionalism may hence be feasible as in the case of the Zambian situation. However, it does not apply to the present day situation because it was used to explain economic situations in most developed countries which can not apply in the case of the Zambian situation. I This essay is aimed at comparing and contrasting structural functionalism with the Marxist and the noe-marxist theories to social change, how they best describe social change in less developed countries; in this case Zambia.

The paper is to also outline the relevance of the two approaches and come up with one that offers the best approach as in the case of Zambia. Social change refers to the structural transformation of political, social, cultural, and economic systems and institutions to create a more stable society. It can also be defined as change in social structure, the nature of the institutions, social behavior or the social relations of the society or community of people. When behavior pattern changes in large numbers and is isible and sustained, it results in social change. Once there is deviance from culturally inherited values, rebellion against the established system may result causing change in social order, any event or action that affects a group of individuals who have shared values of characteristics (Herman, Nancy J and Reynolds, Larry T: 1994). Structural functionalism is defined as a sociological theory that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to meet individual biological needs ( Giddens, 2006).

Structural functionalism to sociological analysis is basically an equilibrium theory. The system is said to be in equilibrium when its component parts are so compatible with each other, denying an outside disturbance, none of them will change its position or relation to others in any significant way. An equilibrium system is said to be stable when a slight change in external conditions creates internal variations whose own effects is equal and opposite to the initial disturbance, thereby moving the system back to its former position of rest.

It is said to be unstable when the initial disturbance creates movement that feeds on its relationships, thereby displacing the system further from its original position of rest (Davies, K:1959). Structural functionalism can also be defined as a sociological paradigm which addresses social functions and various elements of the social system perform in regard to the entire system. Social structures are stressed and placed at the centre of analysis and social functions are deduced from these structures(ibid).

Functionalist believe that one can compare society to a living organism, in that both society and a living organism are made up of interdependent working parts and systems that must function. Functionalists say that the different parts of society e. g family, education, religion, law and order, media etc. have to be seen in terms of contribution that they make to the functioning of the whole society. This organism analogy sees the different parts of society working together to form a social system in the same way that the different parts of an organism form a cohesive functioning entity.

In relation to the case of Zambia, structural functionalism is relevant in understanding social change. It is relevant in that it provides general guidelines for behavior in terms of norms. These institutions of society such as family, religion, the economy, law and order, the educational and political systems are major aspects of social structure. A practical example of an institution that is relevant in Zambia is a family. According to Glencoe (1995;114), the family is the first social world a child encounters, and members are the mirror in which children begin to see themselves.

It is the first group whose norms and values children adopt as their own and refer to in evaluating behavior. Historical analysis also demonstrates that across time, the family has provided many important functions for society. Functionalists believe that mass formal education is an essential part of an industrial society, and that expansion of industrial society, and that expansion of the industrial economies brings a corresponding expansion in the education system, they also see the introduction of mass education as a response to the increasing demand of the industry.

Educational institutions such as colleges, Universities and schools in Zambia help in the development process of Zambian society. Glencoe (1995:118) adds that in modern society, school is a primary agent for weaning children from home and introducing them to the larger society. He further adds that educational institutions have rules and regulations to control those in there hence not only educating them but giving and teaching them rules that will help them live better lives in society. The mass media is one institution that is also very vital.

The forms that reach large numbers of people in form of, Television, radio, and books are all important in that they contribute in being a watch dog, a channel of communication, an educative means and ways in which people express themselves (ibid). Another example of social change is technology influx in recent years such as email, cell phones and online social networks. Each part of the institutions mentioned and listed does something to serve a function or purpose in the Zambia social change.

People who employ functionalism view society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. The theory of belongs to a board theories that are referred to as radical theories of development. The theories are further explained in terms of materialism which are dialectical and historical. By materialism Karl Marx meant that the economic structure of society was the foundation or basis on which the whole society is built (Andropove, V: 1983). In Marxist theories, the division of society into classes is determined by the position within the process of production.

Economic development gives rise to these classes and assumes different relationships to the process of production. Marxism hence is the name given to the body of ideas, which in their totality provide a fully worked out theoretical basis for the struggle of the working class to attain a higher form of human society (ibid). Class consciousness consists of the appropriate and rational reactions imputed to a particular typical position in the process of production. This consciousness is therefore, neither the sum nor the average of what is thought or felt by the single individuals who make up the class.

The historical significant actions of the class as a whole are determined in the last resort by this consciousness and not by the thoughts of the individual. These actions can be understood only by reference to this consciousness (Klaus, W:1989). Karl Marx and Engels state 5 stages in which a human society has to pass through in order for it to develop. These include primitive, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and communism. Primitive society is the first stage of development of human society and arises from the differentiation of man from the animal kingdom (Popkin, H.

R: 1986). Feudalism is the second stage of social development according to Marxism. At this stage, the land lords and nobles comprised of dominant classes and the peasants or serfs that belonged to the exploited class. Capitalism is the third stage and it involves the private ownership of the means of production. In capitalism, there is an emergence of two classes, that is, the bourgeoisies as the owners of capital and the proletariat as the working class (Johari, J: 1989).

Socialism is the fourth stage under Marxism. In socialism, the state has an important role to play on the part of resource allocation. The state is responsible to ensure that all members of society have equal and equitable access to resources. The last stage is Communism according to Marxism. A communist society is one having neither class nor state and all resources in society are equally and equitably distributed. A Communist state can be referred to as a workers paradise.

The neo-Marxists on the other hand, after seeing the failure of working-class revolutions in Western Europe after World War I, chose the parts of Marx’s thought that might clarify social conditions that were not present when Marx was alive. They filled in what they perceived to be omissions in Marxism with ideas from other schools of thought. Neo-Marxists view class divisions under capitalism as more important than gender/sex divisions or issues of race and ethnicity. Neo-Marxism encompasses a group of beliefs that have in common rejection of economic or class determinism nd a belief in at least the semiautonomy of the social sphere. From the above information provided, it can be deduced that despite Marxism, and Neo-Marxism and the Structural functionalism having different approaches to social change, they both place an emphasis on the importance of society in which all the members benefit and the how the society develops as it improves on the living conditions of its people. Both Marxism, and Neo-Marxist and Structural functionalism emphasize that inequality should exist in order for social change to take place.

In Marxism bourgeoisie pay the proletariat low wages for their labour. Structural functionalists state that wages must be given to workers in order for them to carry out their work of which in most cases tend to be low. They also emphasize on the need of the use of force in the process of social change. In the Marxist theory, serfs are treated like slaves in that they are forced to do hard work by the land lords despite low wages. Force is used to control the serfs. In structural functionalism, people who go against the norms, values and rules governing a society are to be punished by some administration of justice.

In both Marxist, and Neo-Marxist and Structural functionalism, members of society have roles to play in order for society to develop and progress. This means that individuals are significant not only in themselves but also in terms of their position in patterns of social relations. One of the differences between Marxist, Neo-Marxist and the Structural functionalism is that in Marxism, social change occurs revolutionary while as for structural functionalism, social change occurs evolutionary without conflicts. Marxism holds the belief that in order for social change to take place, conflicts should exist in order for society to progress.

Unlike structural functionalism, Marxism emphasizes on formation of a society comprised of classes. The classes include the serfs and the land lords in feudalism, the proletariat and the bourgeoisies in capitalism. Structural functionalism emphasizes on different parts of society such institutions and organizations working together in order for society to survive while Marxism and Neo-Marxism states that members of society function for their survival and not necessarily for society, for example; the bourgeoisie and the proletariat in capitalism.

Unlike Marxism, structural functionalism does not contain a sense of agency that individuals are seen as puppets only acting as society requires and the most sophisticated forms of functionalism are based on highly developed concept of actions. In conclusion, structural functionalism better explains achievement of social change in less developed countries like Zambia as compared to the Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories to social change, the Marxist and Neo-Marxist do not offer a valid explanation in the case of Zambia because they advocated for socialism as the ultimate solution towards betterment of society.

Structural functionalism may hence be feasible as in the case of the Zambian situation. However, it does not apply to the present day situation because it was used to explain economic situations in most developed countries which can not apply in the case of the Zambian situation. I This essay is aimed at comparing and contrasting structural functionalism with the Marxist and the noe-marxist theories to social change, how they best describe social change in less developed countries; in this case Zambia.

The paper is to also outline the relevance of the two approaches and come up with one that offers the best approach as in the case of Zambia. Social change refers to the structural transformation of political, social, cultural, and economic systems and institutions to create a more stable society. It can also be defined as change in social structure, the nature of the institutions, social behavior or the social relations of the society or community of people. When behavior pattern changes in large numbers and is visible and sustained, it results in social change.

Once there is deviance from culturally inherited values, rebellion against the established system may result causing change in social order, any event or action that affects a group of individuals who have shared values of characteristics (Herman, Nancy J and Reynolds, Larry T: 1994). Structural functionalism is defined as a sociological theory that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to meet individual biological needs ( Giddens, 2006).

Structural functionalism to sociological analysis is basically an equilibrium theory. The system is said to be in equilibrium when its component parts are so compatible with each other, denying an outside disturbance, none of them will change its position or relation to others in any significant way. An equilibrium system is said to be stable when a slight change in external conditions creates internal variations whose own effects is equal and opposite to the initial disturbance, thereby moving the system back to its former position of rest.

It is said to be unstable when the initial disturbance creates movement that feeds on its relationships, thereby displacing the system further from its original position of rest (Davies, K:1959). Structural functionalism can also be defined as a sociological paradigm which addresses social functions and various elements of the social system perform in regard to the entire system. Social structures are stressed and placed at the centre of analysis and social functions are deduced from these structures(ibid).

Functionalist believe that one can compare society to a living organism, in that both society and a living organism are made up of interdependent working parts and systems that must function. Functionalists say that the different parts of society e. g family, education, religion, law and order, media etc. have to be seen in terms of contribution that they make to the functioning of the whole society. This organism analogy sees the different parts of society working together to form a social system in the same way that the different parts of an organism form a cohesive functioning entity.

In relation to the case of Zambia, structural functionalism is relevant in understanding social change. It is relevant in that it provides general guidelines for behavior in terms of norms. These institutions of society such as family, religion, the economy, law and order, the educational and political systems are major aspects of social structure. A practical example of an institution that is relevant in Zambia is a family. According to Glencoe (1995;114), the family is the first social world a child encounters, and members are the mirror in which children begin to see themselves.

It is the first group whose norms and values children adopt as their own and refer to in evaluating behavior. Historical analysis also demonstrates that across time, the family has provided many important functions for society. Functionalists believe that mass formal education is an essential part of an industrial society, and that expansion of industrial society, and that expansion of the industrial economies brings a corresponding expansion in the education system, they also see the introduction of mass education as a esponse to the increasing demand of the industry. Educational institutions such as colleges, Universities and schools in Zambia help in the development process of Zambian society. Glencoe (1995:118) adds that in modern society, school is a primary agent for weaning children from home and introducing them to the larger society. He further adds that educational institutions have rules and regulations to control those in there hence not only educating them but giving and teaching them rules that will help them live better lives in society.

The mass media is one institution that is also very vital. The forms that reach large numbers of people in form of, Television, radio, and books are all important in that they contribute in being a watch dog, a channel of communication, an educative means and ways in which people express themselves (ibid). Another example of social change is technology influx in recent years such as email, cell phones and online social networks. Each part of the institutions mentioned and listed does something to serve a function or purpose in the Zambia social change.

People who employ functionalism view society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. The theory of belongs to a board theories that are referred to as radical theories of development. The theories are further explained in terms of materialism which are dialectical and historical. By materialism Karl Marx meant that the economic structure of society was the foundation or basis on which the whole society is built (Andropove, V: 1983). In Marxist theories, the division of society into classes is determined by the position within the process of production.

Economic development gives rise to these classes and assumes different relationships to the process of production. Marxism hence is the name given to the body of ideas, which in their totality provide a fully worked out theoretical basis for the struggle of the working class to attain a higher form of human society (ibid). Class consciousness consists of the appropriate and rational reactions imputed to a particular typical position in the process of production. This consciousness is therefore, neither the sum nor the average of what is thought or felt by the single individuals who make up the class.

The historical significant actions of the class as a whole are determined in the last resort by this consciousness and not by the thoughts of the individual. These actions can be understood only by reference to this consciousness (Klaus, W:1989). Karl Marx and Engels state 5 stages in which a human society has to pass through in order for it to develop. These include primitive, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and communism. Primitive society is the first stage of development of human society and arises from the differentiation of man from the animal kingdom (Popkin, H.

R: 1986). Feudalism is the second stage of social development according to Marxism. At this stage, the land lords and nobles comprised of dominant classes and the peasants or serfs that belonged to the exploited class. Capitalism is the third stage and it involves the private ownership of the means of production. In capitalism, there is an emergence of two classes, that is, the bourgeoisies as the owners of capital and the proletariat as the working class (Johari, J: 1989).

Socialism is the fourth stage under Marxism. In socialism, the state has an important role to play on the part of resource allocation. The state is responsible to ensure that all members of society have equal and equitable access to resources. The last stage is Communism according to Marxism. A communist society is one having neither class nor state and all resources in society are equally and equitably distributed. A Communist state can be referred to as a workers paradise.

The neo-Marxists on the other hand, after seeing the failure of working-class revolutions in Western Europe after World War I, chose the parts of Marx’s thought that might clarify social conditions that were not present when Marx was alive. They filled in what they perceived to be omissions in Marxism with ideas from other schools of thought. Neo-Marxists view class divisions under capitalism as more important than gender/sex divisions or issues of race and ethnicity. Neo-Marxism encompasses a group of beliefs that have in common rejection of economic or class determinism and a belief in at least the semiautonomy of the social sphere.

From the above information provided, it can be deduced that despite Marxism, and Neo-Marxism and the Structural functionalism having different approaches to social change, they both place an emphasis on the importance of society in which all the members benefit and the how the society develops as it improves on the living conditions of its people. Both Marxism, and Neo-Marxist and Structural functionalism emphasize that inequality should exist in order for social change to take place. In Marxism bourgeoisie pay the proletariat low wages for their labour.

Structural functionalists state that wages must be given to workers in order for them to carry out their work of which in most cases tend to be low. They also emphasize on the need of the use of force in the process of social change. In the Marxist theory, serfs are treated like slaves in that they are forced to do hard work by the land lords despite low wages. Force is used to control the serfs. In structural functionalism, people who go against the norms, values and rules governing a society are to be punished by some administration of justice.

In both Marxist, and Neo-Marxist and Structural functionalism, members of society have roles to play in order for society to develop and progress. This means that individuals are significant not only in themselves but also in terms of their position in patterns of social relations. One of the differences between Marxist, Neo-Marxist and the Structural functionalism is that in Marxism, social change occurs revolutionary while as for structural functionalism, social change occurs evolutionary without conflicts. Marxism holds the belief that in order for social change to take place, conflicts should exist in order for society to progress.

Unlike structural functionalism, Marxism emphasizes on formation of a society comprised of classes. The classes include the serfs and the land lords in feudalism, the proletariat and the bourgeoisies in capitalism. Structural functionalism emphasizes on different parts of society such institutions and organizations working together in order for society to survive while Marxism and Neo-Marxism states that members of society function for their survival and not necessarily for society, for example; the bourgeoisie and the proletariat in capitalism.

Unlike Marxism, structural functionalism does not contain a sense of agency that individuals are seen as puppets only acting as society requires and the most sophisticated forms of functionalism are based on highly developed concept of actions. In conclusion, structural functionalism better explains achievement of social change in less developed countries like Zambia as compared to the Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories to social change, the Marxist and Neo-Marxist do not offer a valid explanation in the case of Zambia because they advocated for socialism as the ultimate solution towards betterment of society.

Structural functionalism may hence be feasible as in the case of the Zambian situation. However, it does not apply to the present day situation because it was used to explain economic situations in most developed countries which can not apply in the case of the Zambian situation. I BIBLIOGRAPHY Andropove, V. (1983) Karl Marx and Our Time, Progress Publishers, Moscow. Davies, K. (1959) The Myth of Functional Analysis as a Special Method in Sociology and Anthropology. American Social Review. Herman, Nancy J. and Reynolds, Larry T. 994. Symbolic Interaction: An Introduction to Social Psychology. Altamira Press Johari, J. (1989) Principles of Modern Political Science. New York Publishers, New York. Klaus, W. (1989) Beyond Political Independence. New York Publishers, New York. Popkin, H. R (1986) Philosophy Made Simple, Oxford Press, Oxford. This essay is aimed at comparing and contrasting structural functionalism with the Marxist and the noe-marxist theories to social change, how they best describe social change in less developed countries; in this case Zambia.

The paper is to also outline the relevance of the two approaches and come up with one that offers the best approach as in the case of Zambia. Social change refers to the structural transformation of political, social, cultural, and economic systems and institutions to create a more stable society. It can also be defined as change in social structure, the nature of the institutions, social behavior or the social relations of the society or community of people. When behavior pattern changes in large numbers and is visible and sustained, it results in social change.

Once there is deviance from culturally inherited values, rebellion against the established system may result causing change in social order, any event or action that affects a group of individuals who have shared values of characteristics (Herman, Nancy J and Reynolds, Larry T: 1994). Structural functionalism is defined as a sociological theory that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to meet individual biological needs ( Giddens, 2006).

Structural functionalism to sociological analysis is basically an equilibrium theory. The system is said to be in equilibrium when its component parts are so compatible with each other, denying an outside disturbance, none of them will change its position or relation to others in any significant way. An equilibrium system is said to be stable when a slight change in external conditions creates internal variations whose own effects is equal and opposite to the initial disturbance, thereby moving the system back to its former position of rest.

It is said to be unstable when the initial disturbance creates movement that feeds on its relationships, thereby displacing the system further from its original position of rest (Davies, K:1959). Structural functionalism can also be defined as a sociological paradigm which addresses social functions and various elements of the social system perform in regard to the entire system. Social structures are stressed and placed at the centre of analysis and social functions are deduced from these structures(ibid).

Functionalist believe that one can compare society to a living organism, in that both society and a living organism are made up of interdependent working parts and systems that must function. Functionalists say that the different parts of society e. g family, education, religion, law and order, media etc. have to be seen in terms of contribution that they make to the functioning of the whole society. This organism analogy sees the different parts of society working together to form a social system in the same way that the different parts of an organism form a cohesive functioning entity.

In relation to the case of Zambia, structural functionalism is relevant in understanding social change. It is relevant in that it provides general guidelines for behavior in terms of norms. These institutions of society such as family, religion, the economy, law and order, the educational and political systems are major aspects of social structure. A practical example of an institution that is relevant in Zambia is a family. According to Glencoe (1995;114), the family is the first social world a child encounters, and members are the mirror in which children begin to see themselves.

It is the first group whose norms and values children adopt as their own and refer to in evaluating behavior. Historical analysis also demonstrates that across time, the family has provided many important functions for society. Functionalists believe that mass formal education is an essential part of an industrial society, and that expansion of industrial society, and that expansion of the industrial economies brings a corresponding expansion in the education system, they also see the introduction of mass education as a response to the increasing demand of the industry.

Educational institutions such as colleges, Universities and schools in Zambia help in the development process of Zambian society. Glencoe (1995:118) adds that in modern society, school is a primary agent for weaning children from home and introducing them to the larger society. He further adds that educational institutions have rules and regulations to control those in there hence not only educating them but giving and teaching them rules that will help them live better lives in society. The mass media is one institution that is also very vital.

The forms that reach large numbers of people in form of, Television, radio, and books are all important in that they contribute in being a watch dog, a channel of communication, an educative means and ways in which people express themselves (ibid). Another example of social change is technology influx in recent years such as email, cell phones and online social networks. Each part of the institutions mentioned and listed does something to serve a function or purpose in the Zambia social change.

People who employ functionalism view society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. The theory of belongs to a board theories that are referred to as radical theories of development. The theories are further explained in terms of materialism which are dialectical and historical. By materialism Karl Marx meant that the economic structure of society was the foundation or basis on which the whole society is built (Andropove, V: 1983). In Marxist theories, the division of society into classes is determined by the position within the process of production.

Economic development gives rise to these classes and assumes different relationships to the process of production. Marxism hence is the name given to the body of ideas, which in their totality provide a fully worked out theoretical basis for the struggle of the working class to attain a higher form of human society (ibid). Class consciousness consists of the appropriate and rational reactions imputed to a particular typical position in the process of production. This consciousness is therefore, neither the sum nor the average of what is thought or felt by the single individuals who make up the class.

The historical significant actions of the class as a whole are determined in the last resort by this consciousness and not by the thoughts of the individual. These actions can be understood only by reference to this consciousness (Klaus, W:1989). Karl Marx and Engels state 5 stages in which a human society has to pass through in order for it to develop. These include primitive, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and communism. Primitive society is the first stage of development of human society and arises from the differentiation of man from the animal kingdom (Popkin, H. R: 1986).

Feudalism is the second stage of social development according to Marxism. At this stage, the land lords and nobles comprised of dominant classes and the peasants or serfs that belonged to the exploited class. Capitalism is the third stage and it involves the private ownership of the means of production. In capitalism, there is an emergence of two classes, that is, the bourgeoisies as the owners of capital and the proletariat as the working class (Johari, J: 1989). Socialism is the fourth stage under Marxism. In socialism, the state has an important role to play on the part of resource allocation.

The state is responsible to ensure that all members of society have equal and equitable access to resources. The last stage is Communism according to Marxism. A communist society is one having neither class nor state and all resources in society are equally and equitably distributed. A Communist state can be referred to as a workers paradise. The neo-Marxists on the other hand, after seeing the failure of working-class revolutions in Western Europe after World War I, chose the parts of Marx’s thought that might clarify social conditions that were not present when Marx was alive.

They filled in what they perceived to be omissions in Marxism with ideas from other schools of thought. Neo-Marxists view class divisions under capitalism as more important than gender/sex divisions or issues of race and ethnicity. Neo-Marxism encompasses a group of beliefs that have in common rejection of economic or class determinism and a belief in at least the semiautonomy of the social sphere. From the above information provided, it can be deduced that despite Marxism, and Neo-Marxism and the Structural functionalism having different approaches to ocial change, they both place an emphasis on the importance of society in which all the members benefit and the how the society develops as it improves on the living conditions of its people. Both Marxism, and Neo-Marxist and Structural functionalism emphasize that inequality should exist in order for social change to take place. In Marxism bourgeoisie pay the proletariat low wages for their labour. Structural functionalists state that wages must be given to workers in order for them to carry out their work of which in most cases tend to be low. They also emphasize on the need of the use of force in the process of social change.

In the Marxist theory, serfs are treated like slaves in that they are forced to do hard work by the land lords despite low wages. Force is used to control the serfs. In structural functionalism, people who go against the norms, values and rules governing a society are to be punished by some administration of justice. In both Marxist, and Neo-Marxist and Structural functionalism, members of society have roles to play in order for society to develop and progress. This means that individuals are significant not only in themselves but also in terms of their position in patterns of social relations.

One of the differences between Marxist, Neo-Marxist and the Structural functionalism is that in Marxism, social change occurs revolutionary while as for structural functionalism, social change occurs evolutionary without conflicts. Marxism holds the belief that in order for social change to take place, conflicts should exist in order for society to progress. Unlike structural functionalism, Marxism emphasizes on formation of a society comprised of classes. The classes include the serfs and the land lords in feudalism, the proletariat and the bourgeoisies in capitalism.

Structural functionalism emphasizes on different parts of society such institutions and organizations working together in order for society to survive while Marxism and Neo-Marxism states that members of society function for their survival and not necessarily for society, for example; the bourgeoisie and the proletariat in capitalism. Unlike Marxism, structural functionalism does not contain a sense of agency that individuals are seen as puppets only acting as society requires and the most sophisticated forms of functionalism are based on highly developed concept of actions. In conclusion, structural functionalism better explains chievement of social change in less developed countries like Zambia as compared to the Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories to social change, the Marxist and Neo-Marxist do not offer a valid explanation in the case of Zambia because they advocated for socialism as the ultimate solution towards betterment of society. Structural functionalism may hence be feasible as in the case of the Zambian situation. However, it does not apply to the present day situation because it was used to explain economic situations in most developed countries which can not apply in the case of the Zambian situation.

I BIBLIOGRAPHY Andropove, V. (1983) Karl Marx and Our Time, Progress Publishers, Moscow. Davies, K. (1959) The Myth of Functional Analysis as a Special Method in Sociology and Anthropology. American Social Review. Herman, Nancy J. and Reynolds, Larry T. 1994. Symbolic Interaction: An Introduction to Social Psychology. Altamira Press Johari, J. (1989) Principles of Modern Political Science. New York Publishers, New York. Klaus, W. (1989) Beyond Political Independence. New York Publishers, New York. Popkin, H. R (1986) Philosophy Made Simple, Oxford Press, Oxford.