Thus there is a shortage of about 130 MLD. A major part of water requirement of the city is met by canal water. Canal water supply to the city is approximately 272 MLD. There are 170 deep tubewells in the city, which contribute a total of 91 MLD of water from ground water reserves. Besides there are 32 tubewells, which provide drinking water at the norm of 182 litres per capita per day to rural area also. The main source of irrigation is ground water through 35 deep tubewells installed for the purpose of irrigation by Chandigarh Administration. About 90 private shallow tube wells also exist in rural area for irrigation
There are no large natural surface water bodies in Chandigarh though small ponds do exist in the rural areas. The Sukhna Choe has been dammed in northeast side of the city, which has given rise to an artificial lake covering an area of about 1. 62 sq. km. The lake, known as Sukhna has a water holding capacity of five million cubic meters (MCM). UT of Chandigarh falls in the Ghaggar Basin. There are two major streams, Sukhna Choe and Patiala ki Rao that originate from Siwalik Hills ranges and forms the natural drainage of the city The Sukhna Choe flows north to south drains the eastern part and joins the Ghaggar River.
The other important stream is Patiala-ki Rao, which flows northeast to southwest and drains the northern parts of the city. Both these streams are ephemeral in nature and carry high flows during monsoon. The N-Choe flows through the leisure valley and drains major parts of the city. It flows from northeast to southwest direction and traverses north central part of the city. Another Choe Choi Nala originates from Sector-31 and drains southern most part of the city. But our project is limited to the two streams: Sukhna choe and Patiala ki rao choe. We collected the data, some from various offices and some manually and nalysed it on HEC-RAS 4. 0. The details of the same are given ahead. SUKHNA CHOE SukhnaChoe, is one of the stream in Chandigarh. The river rises in the ShivalikRanges in the Indian state of Punjab, and forms the natural Drainage of the city. The SukhnaChoe flows north to south drains the eastern part and joins the Ghaggar River. The stream thus drains, the most heavily populated, with over 9,00,635persons and a population density of about 7903 persons/sq. km. The choe was a lifeline to thousands, who lived along its course and dependent on it for their daily needs.
But faecal coliform levels in the river has exceeded the official Indian government limits. But, an environmental initiative to clean up the river never came up thus far, due to corruption and lack of technical expertise, lack of good environmental planning, Indian traditions and beliefs, and lack of support from religious authorities. COURSE: The SukhnaChoe begins at the confluence of the four rivers at the upstream of chandigarh, Kansal, Nepli, Nathewala & Ghareri. Traditional watchtowers &signage’snear rivers, Kansal and Nepli camouflaging the forests are constructed along the nature trails which add beauty to the trails.
One can get wide view of Shivalik hills from the twelve watch towers. Good forests, easy spotting of wildlife, picturesque water bodies, sprawling lawn of ‘KansalLoghut’ and ‘Nepli inspection hut’ and serpentine nature trails are attracting Nature lovers and other visitors to Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary. Fig. 2 Confluence of 4 rivers  After flowing 3 kilometre,the SukhnaChoe is dammed to form sukhna lake.  This 3 sq km rainfed lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Chow. The curvilinear profile of the promenade along the banks of Sukhna hums with activity from dawn to dusk, reflecting changing moods of the day.
People can be easily seen following there exercise regime and daily walk around The Sukhna Lake,Chandigarh at morning and Evening time. Night in Sukhna Lake gives a beautiful scene of the tiny lights of the small areas like Kasuli,Parvanuetc from the mounatins near Chandigarh. Sukhna Lake also captures the mirror effects in the water presenting a bewitching sight. ROUTE OF SUKHNA CHOE Fig. 3 The Sukhna Choe follows an 1. 57-kilometre arching course passing through the various sectors. The SukhnaChoe passes the Bapu Dhamcolony ,Kishangarh, Industrial area and Ram Darbar.
It flows north to south drains the eastern part and joins the Ghaggar River. GEOLOGY: The Siwalik range trending NW-SE forms the northeastern boundary of Chandigarh and is exposed in a small patch on the northeastern side. Southwestern slopes of the foothills are covered with loose talus material deposited by hill torrents forming alluvial fans. These alluvial fans coalesce to form piedmont Kandi formation running parallel to the hill ranges. The Kandi formations merge into Sirowal formations in south and southwest. The Sirowal merges with the main Alluvial plain towards south and southwest.
The alluvial deposits belong to Quaternary age and comprise layers of fine sand and clay. The soils in UT Chandigarh are loamy sand at surface and calcareous sandy loam in subsurface layers. The hard clay forms pan at depths varying between 20 and 30m. In northern parts the soil is sandy to sandy loam whereas it is loamy to silt loam in southern parts. The soils in Chandigarh are light yellowish brown to pale brown in color. Soils are calcareous and normally having kankar. Almost all the soils are deficient in nitrogen, phosphorous andpotash.  HYDROGEOLOGY:
The formations have been deposited by the drainage system originating in the Shiwaliks. Coarser sediments occur along the Sukhna Choe and Patiala ki Rao whereas relatively finer sediments, thus restricting the aquifer disposition laterally, underlie the area between these two streams. The typical Kandi formations comprising boulders-gravel- coarse sand are not prevalent in the area since the source formations are fine grained. The formations encountered in a borehole drilled down to 465 mbgl in sector 28, close to Sukhna Choe, are well-defined coarse sediments up to 240mbgl.
Below this depth the formations are finer grained. Whereas the shallow formations comprise coarse sand to gravel and pebbles inter collated with clays, the deeper ones are fine sands and silts. Along SukhnaChoe, three prominent sand beds occur (inter-bedded with clay beds) within a depth of about 100 m. The upper sand beds are about 15 m thick and occur 8 m below land surface. Middle sand bed is about 18 m thick and occurs at depths varying from 21 to 38 mbgl. The deeper sand bed occurs at depth varying from 39 to 76 mbgl and is about 27m thick. These beds are more persistent in the down stream direction of SukhnaChoe.
The clay percentage vary from 30 to 62% while sand percentage vary from 38 to 70% in various well logs. In the area lying to the west of Industrial Area around sector 27 to 31, thin sand beds, 3 – 6 m thick have been observed up to depth of 100m. However, in this area thickness of clay beds is more than sand beds.  Fig. 4 WATER TABLE ELEVATION Water table elevation study reveals that the flow of ground water is from north to southwest and southern directions. Water table elevation difference between northern and southwestern parts is 20m and lies between 330 m amsl and 310 m amsl.
Due to this hydraulic difference the ground water moves from north to southwestern direction. In western area ground water flow is towards Patiala-ki- Rao and it flows parallel to SukhnaChoe. The ground water flow from extreme north to southwestern part suggests thatground water recharge takes place from recharge area running parallel to Siwaliks. Fig. 5 Fig 6  POLLUTION When Sukhna Choe was studied for its water flow etc. It was seen that there is no flow left owing to pollution, population, improper drainage services etc. People inhabited near the stream were interviewed, regarding the problems they face and a possible solution to it.
They say, Stream is used as bathing platforms (ghats), where people wash their clothes utensils and are also used as dumping sites for solid organic wastes, including polythene, so these substances leach into the river. Some sections have become completely dry. During rains the area surrounding the stream floods for 3-4 hours, and then dead again. “City streets are not kept clean. Rag pickers could be employed to pick up fruit-skin-vegetable wastes, organic wastes, nails and newspapers/polythene from specified streets and sell them to consumers such as dairies, piggeries, and scrap dealers (kabaris),” N.
K Jain, Grain market suggests. Fig. 7 “Comprehensive river pollution control requires professionals with knowledge of several fields including civil engineering, public health or environmental engineering. The lack of experts in these fields (or high dominance of pseudo environmentalists incompetent to identify the relevant literature or real experts) with decision-making responsibilities within the system has prevented success in clean-up projects,” says XYZ. He also talks of political connections or bribery used to secure high positions in Government, judiciary and academia which have also negated the efforts to clean up the area. Right persons not placed in right places despite India’s highest qualified hardworking genius manpower in every discipline,” he says REFERENCES: CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD,Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India,North
Western RegionCHANDIGARH2007 (source:internet) Chandigarh forest dept chandigarh. gov. in/green_suk_wild6. htm (source:internet) citcochandigarh. gov. in/places_to_visit/sukhna_lake. html (source:internet)  Survey Of India, Sector 30 VISITS * Mr. A. K Singh, Central Ground Water Board,Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India,North Western RegionCHANDIGARH2007 * ICAR, Sector 27 Chandigarh Chandigarh Forest Department, Sector 19 Chandigarh * Sukhna Regulatory Commission, Sukhna Lake * Punjab Water Regulatory, Sector-26 Chandigarh * Punjab Water Regulatory, Sector-55 Chandigarh * Survey Of India, Secor 31 PHOTO GALLERY INVESTIGATED SITES DISTANCE BETWEEN THE STATIONS :- A-B = 1600 M B-C = 950 M C-D = 550 M KISHANGARH (A) 5-SEPTEMBER-2012, 2:38 PM Kishangarh, the rural area, located behind the golf club , near city. Here sukhnaChoe, as much as available is used as a platform for cattle rearing, as the major occupation of the people inhabited there is the same.