Forecasts a. become more accurate with longer time horizons b. are rarely perfect c. are more accurate for individual items than for groups of items d. all of the above e. none of the above One purpose of short-range forecasts is to determine a. production planning b. inventory budgets c. research and development plans d. facility location e. job assignments Forecasts are usually classified by time horizon into three categories a. short-range, medium-range, and long-range b. finance/accounting, marketing, and operations c. trategic, tactical, and operational d. exponential smoothing, regression, and time series e. departmental, organizational, and industrial A forecast with a time horizon of about 3 months to 3 years is typically called a a. long-range forecast b. medium-range forecast c. short-range forecast d. weather forecast e. strategic forecast Forecasts used for new product planning, capital expenditures, facility location or expansion, and R&D typically utilize a a. short-range time horizon b. medium-range time horizon c. long-range time horizon d. aive method, because there is no data history e. all of the above
The three major types of forecasts used by business organizations are a. strategic, tactical, and operational b. economic, technological, and demand c. exponential smoothing, Delphi, and regression d. causal, time-series, and seasonal e. departmental, organizational, and territorial Which of the following is not a step in the forecasting process? a. determine the use of the forecast b. eliminate any assumptions c. determine the time horizon d. select a forecasting model(s) e. validate and implement the results . 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1 8. The two general approaches to forecasting are a. qualitative and quantitative b. mathematical and statistical c. judgmental and qualitative d. historical and associative e. judgmental and associative Which of the following uses three types of participants: decision makers, staff personnel, and respondents? a. executive opinions b. sales force composites c. the Delphi method d. consumer surveys e. time series analysis Which of the following is not a type of qualitative forecasting? a. executive opinions b. sales force composites c. onsumer surveys d. the Delphi method e. moving average
The forecasting model that pools the opinions of a group of experts or managers is known as the a. sales force composition model b. multiple regression c. jury of executive opinion model d. consumer market survey model e. management coefficients model Which of the following techniques uses variables such as price and promotional expenditures, which are related to product demand, to predict demand? a. associative models b. exponential smoothing c. weighted moving average d. simple moving average e. ime series Which of the following statements about time-series forecasting is true? a. It is based on the assumption that future demand will be the same as past demand. b. It makes extensive use of the data collected in the qualitative approach. c. The analysis of past demand helps predict future demand. d. Because it accounts for trends, cycles, and seasonal patterns, it is more powerful than causal forecasting. Time-series data may exhibit which of the following behaviors? a. trend b. random variations c. seasonality d. cycles e. all of the above 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 2 15.
Gradual, long-term movement in time-series data is called a. seasonal variation b. cycles c. trends d. exponential variation e. random variation Which of the following is not present in a time series? a. seasonality b. operational variations c. trend d. cycles e. random variations The fundamental difference between cycles and seasonality is the a. duration of the repeating patterns b. magnitude of the variation c. ability to attribute the pattern to a cause d. all of the above In time series, which of the following cannot be predicted? a. large increases in demand b. technological trends c. easonal fluctuations d. random fluctuations e. large decreases in demand What is the approximate forecast for May using a four-month moving average? Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April 39 36 40 42 48 46 a. b. c. d. e. 38 42 43 44 47 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
Which time series model below assumes that demand in the next period will be equal to the most recent period’s demand? a. naive approach b. moving average approach c. weighted moving average approach d. exponential smoothing approach e. none of the above Which of the following is not a characteristic of simple moving averages? . it smoothes random variations in the data b. it has minimal data storage requirements c. it weights each historical value equally d. it smoothes real variations in the data 21. 3 22. A six-month moving average forecast is better than a three-month moving average forecast if demand a. is rather stable b. has been changing due to recent promotional efforts c. follows a downward trend d. follows an upward trend Increasing the number of periods in a moving average will accomplish greater smoothing, but at the expense of a. manager understanding b. accuracy c. stability d. esponsiveness to changes Which of the following statements comparing the weighted moving average technique and exponential smoothing is true? a. Exponential smoothing is more easily used in combination with the Delphi method. b.
More emphasis can be placed on recent values using the weighted moving average. c. Exponential smoothing is considerably more difficult to implement on a computer. d. Exponential smoothing typically requires less record-keeping of past data. Which time series model uses past forecasts and past demand data to generate a new forecast? a. naive b. moving average c. weighted moving average d. xponential smoothing Which is not a characteristic of exponential smoothing? a. smoothes random variations in the data b. easily altered weighting scheme c. weights each historical value equally d. has minimal data storage requirements Which of the following smoothing constants would make an exponential smoothing forecast equivalent to a naive forecast? a. 0 b. 1 divided by the number of periods c. 0. 5 d. 1. 0 Given an actual demand of 103, a previous forecast value of 99, and an alpha of . 4, the exponential smoothing forecast for the next period would be a. 94. 6 b. 97. 4 c. 100. 6 d. 101. 6 e. 03. 0 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 4 29.
A forecast based on the previous forecast plus a percentage of the forecast error (previous) is a(n) a. qualitative forecast b. naive forecast c. moving average forecast d. weighted moving average forecast e. exponentially smoothed forecast Given an actual demand of 61, a previous forecast of 58, and an a of . 3, what would the forecast for the next period be using simple exponential smoothing? a. 45. 5 b. 57. 1 c. 58. 9 d. 61. 0 e. 65. 5 Which of the following values of alpha would cause exponential smoothing to respond the most quickly to forecast errors? . 0. 00 b. 0. 10 c. 0. 20 d. 0. 40 A forecasting method has produced the following over the past five months. What is the mean absolute deviation? Actual 10 8 10 6 9 a. b. c. d. e. -0. 2 -1. 0 0. 0 1. 2 8. 6 Forecast 11 10 8 6 8 Error -1 -2 2 0 1 Error 1 2 2 0 1 30. 31. 32. 33. The primary purpose of the mean absolute deviation (MAD) in forecasting is to a. estimate the trend line b. eliminate forecast errors c. measure forecast accuracy d. seasonally adjust the forecast 5 34. Given forecast errors of -1, 4, 8, and -3, what is the mean absolute deviation? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 8 e. 6
For a given product demand, the time-series trend equation is 25. 3 + 2. 1 X. What is your forecast of demand for period 7? a. 23. 2 b. 25. 3 c. 27. 4 d. 40 In trend-adjusted exponential smoothing, the Forecast Including Trend (FIT) consists of a. an exponentially smoothed forecast and an estimated trend value b. an exponentially smoothed forecast and a smoothed trend factor c. the old forecast adjusted by a trend factor d. the old forecast and a smoothed trend factor Which of the following is true regarding the two smoothing constants of the Forecast Including Trend (FIT) model? . Their values are determined independently. b. They are called alpha and beta, Producer’s Risk and Consumer’s Risk. c. Alpha is always smaller than beta. d. All of the above are true. The percent of variation in the dependent variable that is explained by the regression equation (independent variable) is measured by the a. mean absolute deviation b. slope c. coefficient of determination d. correlation coefficient The degree or strength of a linear relationship is shown by the a. alpha b. mean c. mean absolute deviation d. correlation coefficient.