Which Italian city-state dominated the renaissance until the 15th century? Florence 2. A major difference between Italian and Northern Renaissance was that the Italian renaissance was more secular. 3. The characteristics of Italian Renaissance art are curvilinear rhythms, rich color, and detail. 4. Upper class women during the Italian Renaissance declined in status. 5.

A major difference between European society in the Renaissance compared to society in the later middle ages was that the renaissance society experienced a sense of self separate and greater than their predecessors 6. Identify characteristics of the 16th century work of art, Toledo, by El Greco: showed a rejection of Renaissance ideals 7. Who was Niccolo Machiavelli and how did he believe a ruler should act? He was a civil servant of the Florentine republic and believed a ruler should be efficient in maintaining and gaining power and to not be limited my moral principles 8.

An important characteristic of “new monarchs” of the late 15th and 16th centuries was their strong sense of royal authority and national purpose. 9. How does Thomas More in Utopia describe the conditions of 16th century England? Flawed social institutions/greed were responsible for human corruption 10. In the period 1450 to 1550—how would you explain the major differences between society in Renaissance Italy and the societies of France and England? France and England were more religious and the Renaissance was a development of broad social reform based on Christian ideals.

Identify the following 16th century Catholic figures: [only need to know that Teresa of Avila promoted emotionalism and a personal relationship with God] 2. The ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin were similar that: they maintained the sacraments of communion and baptism. 3. The art entitled the Passional of Christ and Antichrist reflect: the Lutheran movement rejected corrupt practices of the Roman Catholic church 4. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) is significant because it ended pluralism and absenteeism, raised the standards of the clergy, and reaffirmed Catholic practices. 5.

What European ruler posed the biggest obstacle to the spread of Protestantism in the 16th century? Charles V 6. Ignatius Loyola: created Society of Jesus and helped convert much of Europe back to Catholicism 7. Discuss the doctrine of the Anglican Church under Henry VIII: the king is the head of the church, was a permanent break with Rome, dissolved English monasteries for their wealth, and was between Catholicism and Protestantism 8. Identify the results of the Treaty of Westphalia: ended conflict over religious faiths and recognized the sovereignty of German princes CHAPTER 15: EXPLORATION 1.

The first European explorer to find an all-water route to India by rounding the southern tip of Africa was Vasco de Gama. 2. Given information about each of these explorers, look at those who may have been opposed to the cruel treatment of American Indians in the 16th century New World: a) Francisco pizarro- conquered Incans, and landed in Peru b) Christopher Columbus- discovered Caribbean, cruel to the natives c) Bartolome de Las Casas- Spanish missionary, wanted to end Indian slavery, started black slavery d) Tomas de Torquemada- headed Spanish Inquisition e) Philip II- not an explorer, funded the voyages 21. Identify technological innovations and advancements used in navigation during the 16th century: ship cannon, astrolabe, caravel, magnetic compass 22. What country was the first to introduce African slavery to the New World? Portugal 23. Identify some immediate causes of the Thirty Years’ War. Defenestration of Prague [act of throwing someone out a window] 24. Explain the impact of the commercial revolution had on Western European Society: more developed towns, powerful nation-states, age of competition for overseas colonies, inflation, bourgeoisie influence increased, and increase in standard of living 25.

Explain the role the Dutch Republic played in trade and finance during the first half of the 17th century: started taking control of Portuguese and Spanish holdings in the New World, controlling overseas trade, and one of the largest powers in trade 26. Explain the role that Henry IV of France played in politics: ended France’s civil war and used practical compromises to solve political issues [sacrificed religion for political necessity

Identify causes of the English civil war: personality of King Charles I, decline of power of the English monarchy, broadening the ship tax, clashes with Scots, and a response to threats made against Parliament 28. Explain the political theories of Jacques-Benign Bossuet: strongly believed in the divine right of kings and political absolutism 29. Identify the results of the glorious Revolution in England: bill of rights including religious freedom for Catholics, sole power of Parliament [on test: did not reject mercantilism] 30.

Explain the important consequences of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713): set the limits where one power could expand and completed the decline of Spain 31. Explain the major difference between the societies of eastern and western Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries: the extent of control the nobility had over the peasantry (Eastern Europe’s peasants suffered a downward shift in rights compared to Western Europe’s peasants gaining rights).

Identify and explain the role the Fredrick William the “Great Elector” had in the 1640s to 1680s: duke of Prussia—promoted trade and domestic reforms that helped turn Prussia into a European power 33, Explain some of the accomplishments of Peter the Great: a ruler that brought many Western influences to modernize Russia, increase serfdom, and developed the Baltic region of Russia 34. How did the Ottoman Empire maintain control of southeastern Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries? Forced Christian children into the military [conscription] 35.

Identify some of Catherine the Great’s achievements: defeated the Ottoman Turks, gained land in Poland, abolished torture, established religious toleration, education for girls, and established the Legislative commission. 36. What was King Louis XIV’s Edict of Fontainebleau? What did it replace? Revoked the edict of Nantes and replaced the Peace of Augsburg 37. The key to economic prosperity of the Dutch Republic in the early 16th century was: religious toleration and cosmopolitan culture CHAPTER 18: ENLIGHTENMENT 38.

Explain who Voltaire is and his role in politics. French enlightenment writer that promoted civil liberties such as religious toleration and was a great philosopher 39. Explain who Cardinal Richelieu is and his role in politics: reshuffled the royal council, divided France into 32 districts, executed and controlled aristocrats 40. Explain what deism is: a belief based on a more secular view of the universe 41. Isaac Newton’s Principia (1687) was very important in science because it demonstrated how the world worked though explainable, natural forces 42.

Francis bacon is also an important person during the Scientific Revolution because he started the scientific method and thought to reject everything unless you could prove it 43. Vesalius is also an important person during the scientific revolution because he founded modern anatomy and wrote the most influential book on human anatomy. 44. Explain the Catholic Church’s response to Copernicus’s heliocentric theory:  the church responded slowly but generally did not support it as it was contradictory to the previous beliefs 45.

Explain the Catholic Church’s response to Galileo: the Church tried him for heresy, forced him to recant, and spend the rest of his life in house arrest 46. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and his political (government) beliefs: the ruler is determined by the general will of the people (which may not be the majority) and must serve it or the people will rebel 47. Identify the “Enlightened Rulers” and the countries they ruled: Fredrick the Great- Prussia; Catherine the Great- Russia; Joseph II and Maria Theresa- Austria 48.

What was the persistent foreign policy that threatened the Austrian Hapsburgs between 1525 and 1700? Turkish advances into Eastern and Central Europe CHAPTER 19: EXPANSION OF EUROPE 49. Explain some of the consequences of the agricultural revolution in the 18th century: rotation of crops 50. Explain Adam Smith’s political and economic viewpoints: he was critical of mercantilism and the government’s role in economics; he wanted a free market economy [laizee faire economics] and wanted a system of natural liberty CHAPTER 20: CHANGING LIFE OF THE PEOPLE

What disease were Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Edward Jenner able to control? Small pox 52. During the 18th century, how were children treated, or reared? [On test: middle class families became more child centered and nurturing] CHAPTER 21: FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON 53. Napoleon’s acceptance of the Concordat of 1801 resulted in: improved relations between the French Government and Roman Catholic Church 54. What social group was able to maintain most of its gains during the French Revolution and Napoleonic era?

The peasantry 55. Explain the Tennis Court Oath. Who was involved, who was this about, and the end result. The 3 French estates were in a deadlock over a National Assembly; the 3rd estate broke off and created their own National Assembly, vowing to not disband their National Assembly until a constitution was created 56. Explain the Continental System under Napoleon Bonaparte: was meant to exclude British goods in trade but was not successful 57.

Explain what French society was prior to the French Revolution: the bourgeoisie had financial wealth and power, but few legal rights because they were excluded from the other classes 58. Explain how the English Civil War and the French Revolution were similar: after the revolts, the ruling classes in power previous to the revolt returned to power afterwards 59. The most radical phase of the French Revolution occurred during the National Convention 60.

What was Olympe de Gouges role during the French Revolution? Worked with women during the revolution—spokesperson for women’s rights CHAPTER 22: THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 61. What were the conditions that allowed England to industrialize? Expanding Atlantic economy, strong position in Latin America, colonization in the Americas, involvement in slave trade 62. The following inventions were necessary for the development of the industrial Revolution.