symptoms of measles

The classical signs and symptoms of measles include four-day fevers [ the 4 D’s ] and the three Cs cough, coryza (head cold), and conjunctivitis (red eyes) along with fever, anorexia, and rashes. The fever may reach up to 40 (104 OF). Koplik’s spots seen inside the mouth are pathognomonic (diagnostic) for measles, but are not often seen, even in real cases of measles, because they are transient and may disappear within a day of arising.

The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a eneralized, maculopapular, erythematous rash that begins several days after the fever starts. It starts on the back of the ears and, after a few hours, spreads to the head and neck before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching. The measles rash appears two to four days after the initial symptoms and lasts for up to eight days.

The rash is said to “stain”, changing color from red to dark brown, before disappearing. [5] Complications[edit] Complications with measles are relatively common, ranging from mild and less erious complications such as diarrhea to more serious ones such as otitis media,[7] acute encephalitis (and very rarely SSPE subacute sclerosing panencephalitis),[8] and corneal ulceration (leading to corneal scarring). 9] Complications are usually more severe in adults who catch the virus. [10] The death rate in the 1920s was around 30% for measles pneumonia. [11] Between the years 1987 and 2000, the case fatality rate across the United States was 3 measles- attributable deaths per 1000 cases, or In underdeveloped nations with high ates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates have been as high as 28%. [12] In immunocompromised patients (e. . people with AIDS) the fatality rate is approximately Cause[edit] Measles Measles virus electron micrograph Virus classification Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA) Order: Mononegavirales Family: Paramyxoviridae Subfamily: Paramyxovirinae Genus: Morbillivirus Species: Measles virus Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.

Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no other animal reservoirs are known to exist. This highly contagious virus is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions. Risk factors for measles virus infection include the following: Children with immunodeficiency due to HIV or 5] alkylating agents, or corticosteroid therapy, regardless of immunization status[16] Travel to areas where measles is endemic or contact with travelers to