textbook as an essential component of the classroom

It has been widely accepted that textbook is an essential component of the classroom. It is the most common teaching device. A textbook is a manual of instruction or a standard book in any branch of study. They are produced according to the demand of educational institution.

This paper is a textbook evaluation to determine the effectiveness of the book to the 3rd year high school students in the reading development and if it provides the learning goals of each lesson, classified into listening, speaking, reading, grammar, writing and study skills, and values objectives as a tool for learning and living in the highly competitive world. Education demands a high-quality level of learning device or technology. In fact, the efficiency of the teaching-learning process depends on the authenticity and relevance of the instructional material. One of which is the textbook.

One of the skills education demands is the skill on reading. Reading is the cognitive process of understanding a written linguistic message. According to Timothy Dwight, “A person who cannot read is something like a blind man walking through a pleasant meadow, where there are flowers and fruit trees; there are many pleasant things and many wise and good things printed in books, but we cannot get them unless we read”. It is the root of all wisdom. So what do you think would be the effect if a student will gather wrong information or inaccurate learning from a book?

Textbook is book used in schools or colleges for the formal study of a subject. They play a big role in the learning process of every individual. They can make or break the student’s future. So it is really important to select the best book that you will use in facilitating learning. Well, selecting isn’t enough, there should always be an evaluation; for you to see the efficacy of every components of the book. This paper will present how a specific textbook satisfy the requirements to be considered an efficient book. Each part of the book will be criticized and evaluated whether they work for each other or some should be eliminated.

The following parts of the paper are product of close reading of the book “Public Speaking and Speech Improvement for Filipino Students Fourth Edition” by Arsenia B. Tan. OBJECTIVES 1. To determine the effectiveness of the book to the 3rd year high school students in the reading development. 2. To value the importance of the reading book/s instead of depending everything on the internet. 3. To awaken the students that even in their simple ways, they can be a good public speaker. TEXTBOOK ANALYSIS I. Title of the book: Public Speaking and Speech Improvement for Filipino Students II.

Author: Arsenia B. Tan III. Subject Area of Concentration: English IV. Curriculum used: Third Year High School (English III) V. Textbook Analysis: This book offers a practical approach to the fundamentals of speech improvement. Since speech is a communication, there are a number of factors that the reader must consider. If he wishes to be an effective communicator of his thoughts are feelings. The following premises will discuss each part of the book about their content, implication, and efficiency. A. Title Page The book is covered with a yellow- colored skin with the title pointed on it.

The design used a picture at a speaker showing his conviction in public speaking. As a reader you will initially figure out that the book indeed offers a great content by simply looking on its cover page. B. Copyright Page The book displays the total information about the book’s publishing company, date, and authors. This would be beneficial to the students who aim to have a research. C. Table of Contents Based on convention, the topics of the book were presented in organized form. Each topic was specified with its page location. Each part of the book was placed on the table of contents.

The teacher, student of any reader will have an easy time looking for the topics of the book. D. Preface The most precious gift that God has given to man is the power of speech. It is the power that distinguishes man from animals. Man uses speech to communicate his thoughts, feelings, desires, and aspirations to his fellow beings with to whom he interacts in continual living or in social activities. This is how the authors started her preface. It is indeed encouraging to read the preface. It gives us an efficient birds-eye-view about the goals and content of the book.

If you will match it to the curriculum, it is suitable to the demands of the Language subjects of the students. The preface seems to be the author’s journal. You can read how dedicated she is to transmit the wisdom of public speaking to her readers. It is the main objective – to develop not only mastery of the communication skills but also proficiency in the transmission of ideas that this book has been prepared. For this reason, this book will serve as an individual tool to develop one’s communicative power to the outmost if he expects to become a competent and dynamic administrator or leader in his field of endeavour.

E. Chapter Analysis A. Part 1: On Public Speaking Chapter 1: What public speaking involves? The chapter deals with the definition of public speaking. It also presents different definition from various authors of public speaking. Since the book is used for language subjects in secondary, the content of chapter one satisfy the demands of a newbie speaker who will read this book. The student will easily understand the ideas of chapter one because the words are clearly defined and the examples given are congruent to the reality of life the book describes. The teacher could also apply the tips presented in the chapter.

Most of the explanations can be easily discussed through the use of examples provided. The chapter offers a self- evaluation on its last part. It is an oral examination which asks ‘What can you contribute to make your country a better place to live in as an individual? As a member of the community? As a professional? ” See page 12. Basically, the activity is appropriate to test the effect of the tips given on the chapter. The teacher could assess whether learners is effectively learning. B. Chapter 2: Delivery as an effective medium of putting words into action. This particular chapter talks about delivery.

Its process, definition, and aspects. The factors affecting delivery were also presented chronologically. The salient factors to underscore in the process of delivery were presented in detail. The student could easily understand the steps because they were narratively presented. And most of the examples are true to life. The student can easily relate with the scenarios of delivery. The teacher is the best demonstrator of the following reminders of delivery. If she will follow the steps given she’ll be effective in her discussion of the chapter. The chapter offers another self- evaluation which asks for application test.

The activity can help the teacher to assess the student’s development in his delivery. C. Chapter 3: Developing a pleasing, impressive voice and using gestures effectively. The chapter discussed the definitions of voice and gestures. It also presented different techniques in developing the two. The book gave a lot of standard procedures in performing voice and gestures. The students are subjected to corrections and criticism whenever they attempt to perform such. The chapter could help the teacher in managing the voice quality of the students, even the execution of the gestures.

The teacher should master every bits of information of this chapter three. She could effectively demonstrate the standard procedures. The chapter presented a voice drill and gestures drill which serves as an activity to evaluate the students’ mastery of the lesson. D. Chapter 4: Preparing the speech In this chapter the content is all about how will the student prepare a speech. There are factors that the student must consider as a speaker before making a speech. How to become an interesting and effective speaker are being underscore in this chapter.

It also includes suggestions in preparing a speech to be a great public speaker. As a good speaker, every individual must know how to make a plan on how to produce or write an interesting beginning and a remarkable ending. The book suggests the ways in choosing a topic or a subject considering the audience, occasion, and the availability of the materials to be used in the speech. The activity given in this chapter assess the capability of the student’s knowledge on a certain topic and how will he react or present in the situation given. Thus, the given topic is somehow difficult for the students for the secondary level.

The topic must be appropriate in their level. E. Chapter 5: Tackling the problem of listening. This chapter discussed the problems in listening. Basically, this is a very interesting topic for the readers who are experiencing problems in listening since talking is such a natural and endless activity that we perform in daily. We frequently have conversations without realizing that we are engaged in a public rather than in a private activity. Good thing about this chapter is that, it provides demonstrative examples like dialogues of native speakers as they overcome problems in listening.

It also discussed different symptoms and signs about having listening problems. The students could easily relate to the lesson because students nowadays are sometimes experiencing listening problems. The chapter’s topic is a challenge to the teacher because it provides different tips to solve the listening problems. Part of which are the suggested activities see page 52- 53. F. Chapter 6: Variations in the forms of your prepared speeches. This chapter is a performance- based part. The time to speak has come! The students should have to stand before an audience and deliver their speech.

This chapter asks for what kind of category of speech will the student perform on a specific purpose. The chapter provided concrete excerpts and sample speeches from different sources (see bibliography) which played a big role in transmitting the skills in speaking. There are also practical speeches to be practiced after every type of speech. A student could also use the examples to compare their speech efficiency to others. The teacher is privilege to have this part of the book because she will not have a hard time looking for resources. She could easily facilitate learning by simply using the given examples of speech on the chapter.

Education- wise, the chapter also provided a practical activity on the latter part of it. It requires students to perform different types of speeches see page 66. G. Chapter 7: Speaking with a definite purpose. After discussing how to speak, this chapter aims to illustrate different purposes why we speak. The general purpose of speaking is usually to inform, to inspire, to convince, to entertain, to persuade. The student is lucky to have this part of the book, only limited books presents comprehensive details about different purpose of speeches.

They could practice and inculcate in their minds the variation of speeches according to specific purpose. As expected, this chapter provided examples of speeches depending on its specific purpose of such. It presented narrative explanation of each type of purposeful speeches. A teacher can facilitate learning by using different examples given to this chapter. In fact, most activities are already given in the evaluation part of this book. H. Chapter 8: The art of audience psychology. As we observed, the topics are getting deeper and more complex.

Since speeches are fundamentally built around people’s lives and are primarily directed to an audiences it is of vital importance to study the audience and to know the art of its psychology if a public speaker wishes to be successful and efficient during the moment of speech communication. This chapter, it was clearly searched that a speaker should master the audience’s psychology. In fact, it provides different factors to remember the audience’s psychology. The teacher is expected to discuss all pointers given in the chapter through the use of practical examples given in the book.

In the evaluation part, it can be used in the actual discussion because it is performance- based. See page 85. I. Chapter 9: Can children and teenagers become public speakers and type of audience in a public speaking occasion. In this chapter, children and teenagers as public speakers and as an audience in a public speaking occasion. They will surely gasp with disbelief and prospect of seeing children and teenagers going to podium, standing before a microphone and getting ready to deliver a speech. This chapter deals with the other dimension to consider in public speaking. It focuses on a specific human age.

These are children and teenager. Basically, childhood is the beginning of development. This chapter offers different pointers and suggestions on how to develop public speaking skill in special occasion. The teacher can use the given excerpts and literary pieces to facilitate the activities which the chapter demands. It is comprehensive because standard procedures were given to be able to perform a speech. J. Chapter 10: Getting involved with a group discussion. Today, we recognized the value of group discussions. Many changes are brought about in our social, political, and religious conditions.

Religious conditions through participation of individuals in group discussions. After learning bout individual’s performances, this chapter moved to the next level which is group discussions. The student is being prepared for social interaction. It also presented the different requirements of group communication. The teacher and student can distinguish how efficient a group can be in accomplishing something that would be impossible or at least improbable for a person will depend on a large degree upon the ability of the group members to communicate effectively when they find themselves in a group situation.

This chapter is a great source to read because nowadays we are dealing with a multi- cultural world wherein we are demanded to be socially competent. This chapter gave an activity see page 128. It asked the student’s to perform an activity about group communication. ’ K. Chapter 11: The campaign speech. Since speech is broad, this chapter tackles a specific kind of speech which is the campaign speech. This is beneficial to students or even teachers who are hoping to be efficient in campaign speeches.

We live in an era today, where politics, economics and social event dominated and determined the outcome of people’s life and destiny. This chapter discussed the definition, importance, implication, and glamour of campaign speech. It provides different styles and techniques in a good campaign speech. Each part of the speech is discussed on how to create such and how to implement. Each part provided different exercises which can test and practice the student’s efficiency in campaign speech. The attitudes of a campaign speaker cited can be used by the teacher while discussing the topic.

It serves as a motivation for them because the exercises were really challenging for the learners. L. Chapter 12: Speeches for special occasion. Public speaking is indeed multi- faceted. It appears In different forms as it evolve out many varied occasions in which a person is asked to speak publicly. There is a variety of occasions that produce special types of public speaking and though brief in nature may still require a professional mode of preparation and delivery of speech in public and may demand guidelines to help the speaker achieve his goals.

A student can efficiently master these topics presented simply because life is full of special occasions, wherein these occasions requires a good speaking skills. As a beginner, this is a good source of wisdom to follow. Practical examples and guidelines on making speeches for special occasions were given. Speech for special occasions is done with the use of following steps. So each topic gives procedures on how to perform such. The teacher can use the activities provided on page 49. M. Chapter 13: Some special types of public speaking which arise from occasional, historical, or special events of the time.

There are types of speeches evolves only out of the occasional, historical, or special events that happen in a country, region, city or any business on educational institutions wherein buildings are expected to commemorate a special historical events or when important persons who have dedicated their whole life to the source of a country, on a well- known business organization or an outstanding educational institution are accorded full honours for their unstinting and meritorious works or services to humanitarian causes by means of status or other sculptural works in order to perpetuate their names during and specially after their life time.

It is a great chapter because the newly- invented types of speeches were presented comprehensively the standard procedures were also presented comprehensively the standard procedures were also presented orderly in detailed- manner. The chapter offers practical activities about the types of speeches presented. The speeches can be read by the students and performed inside the class. The teacher can also make different activities suggested by the book. * Chapter 13’s Appendices This is a special portion of the book because it gives a lot of examples or ifferent genres of public speaking (see page 166-176). Some books don’t offer this portion. These examples can be used and implemented in the different speaking activities the teacher wish to perform. Drills for children on vowel and consonantal sounds through these action nursery rhymes and through varieties of poems. N. Chapter 14: The interview and choral verse recitation. From single performance/ speech this chapter presented a more complex speech type. They’re actually considered as special form of public speaking. Why?

Because this special speeches requires two or more number of speakers. First on the list is the interview this will be very beneficial to the students because one of these days they will experience an interview. Another is the choral verse this is also known as “speech choir” the unity of voice and mind here is very important. The teacher can use different sources given for evaluating the acquired knowledge by the students. It provides situational activities wherein the students will be the one to decide on what to do. O. Chapter 15: Dramatic interpretation and play production.

This is the last objective chapter of the books and this is another phase of public speaking. This time it tackles about drama and play production. As a public speaker being an actor is a must. The students and teachers shall deal with dramatic interpretation and play production as distinct special forms of public speaking. Principles and factors to consider in Drama were presented comprehensively. It will surely benefit for all the students. B. Part II. On Speech Improvement Students who desire to master the pronunciation of English or American vowels and consonant sounds that give them difficulties in the roduction of these sounds. This is a special part of the book wherein from lesson (1-51) are presented for the enhancement of the student’s proficiency in speaking. The students will be provided guidelines during the production of these sounds such as the position of the tongue, type of the sound, lip formation, etc. Students who wish to be proficient in the pronunciation of the English or American show some clusters must always bear in mind that these consonant clusters are among difficult sounds for speakers of other language. A.

Appendices The sources used were presented in a standard format of bibliography. It is good because the future researchers won’t have difficulty in using the book. The sources are efficient for the reader to use. B. Bibliography It is rare for textbook to have “appendices”. This part contains different excerpts and masterpieces which can be used by the students in exercising the lesson of public speaking. GENERAL FINDINGS: Fit between Student and Text 1. Content / Explanation Is the content likely to be of interest or use to the students? The book is easy to read and has a refreshing style. It has a “Speech Improvement Part” that is relevant to the book content and it captured the interest of the students because of its contents that contains oral reading and acting activities that will develop the student’s skills in reading and speaking.

And also it helps the teacher to evaluate the individual progress of the students. 2. Examples Are the examples appropriate to the lives and interests of the students? Do the examples fit closely with the concepts they are supposed to be explaining? The examples in the textbook are appropriate and interesting because it helps the pupils to learn more. The textbook also provides an illustration in the example which emphasizes the real life situation where pupils will learn. 3. Exercises / Tasks Do the exercises or tasks provide enough variety to meet the needs of different kinds of learners in the class (es)? Will they be of interest to those students? – The exercises or tasks provide enough variety to meet the needs of different kinds of learners in the class by means of providing activities which are systematically organized to develop reading proficiency.

It meets the interest of the learners, because it includes enjoyable activities which they can relate and apply the things that they have learned. 4. Presentation / Format Does the book look right for these Students? Are the illustration and other graphical and design elements appropriate for their age and educational level? Is the printed text easy to read and appropriate for their reading level? Is the mix between print and white space balanced so that readability is enhanced and appropriate? Does the book have an index, appendices, or other sections that are usable by students?

Is the book well-constructed will it last a term of hard use by students? – Yes, because the illustrations, graphical designs elements and all its contents are appropriate for the student’s age and grade level. It is conducive for learning. In fact, the hierarchy of lessons is in the simple to complex form. Which is really good for the readers? ADVANTAGES OF THE TEXTBOOK 1. The reading exercises provide practice in a variety of informational skills and reading comprehension skills. 2. The important words are being emphasized by means of bolding the letters. 3.

Concrete how-to procedures are given, based on actual teaching experience. TABLE I. Analysis of Content for implementation of teaching Linguistic Content| The content contributes towards addressing learning objectives of the system. It teaches pupils to be an English-educated person for it helps to develop reading English skills. Concepts and skills are presented in the most logical sequence, from reading readiness level to the highest level, to make it easier for the pupils to learn and for the teacher to teach, and also to help pupils to enhance their creative or logical thinking. Thematic Content| The book contains two (2) that has different topic, and in each unit contains different lessons. Since this is a reading and speaking book, in the first unit the topic is all about “On Public Speaking”, second unit entitled “On Speech Improvement”,The topic in each unit makes happen to students that reading is fun and interesting. By this topics It can motivate students to read more, since each theme are connected to the lessons to be tackled. | Table II. Analysis of Teaching Activities for Implementation in Teaching Which of the activities provided in this textbook will I do in class? Chapter 7, Activity 2. The re-enactment of a specific scenario is one of the most done in English Classes. | Which activities in the textbook will I assign as homework? | Chapter 4 (Activity 1-4) The student should prepare different tips on how to create a speech by using different sources or speakers. | Which activities in the textbook will I hold back to use for testing? | Unit 2, (Chapter 2) Mastery of the English Sounds. With this type of activities it focuses with one main goal; to evaluate whether the learners understand the topic or not.

We can also identify if the information given was acquired by the learners and how long it was retained with their minds. | Which activities in the textbook can be used for review later in the term? | The activities that can be used for review are activities are Chapter 1, Activity 1. With these types of activities teachers can evaluate whether the learners are listening to the stories presented in class and how they will reason-out with the questions being asked. | Which activities in the textbook require longer periods of time to accomplish- special projects? Chapter 6, (Interview and prepare a talk about a famous TV show nowadays, in this activity learners is requiring a lot of self-confidence, Creativeness is one approach that learners could apply with this said activity. | Which activities in the textbook might require special Equipment that was to be ordered ahead of time? | Activities 6(Role playing) are the activities in the textbook that might require special equipment. The reason why it requires special equipment for the learners to see the reality of things. Having props and costumes conveys someone’s curiosity and imagination.

With this role playing activities the learners can witness and experienced what’s in the book and how it was being done. | Which activities in the textbook do I not want to do at all? | Chapter 14, Activity 1. Prepare a choral verse presentation. | CONCLUSION The program of activities should follow a predictable format wherein each lesson is covered in one week. Planning that the students will know in advance what areas of development are to be taken up each day. DAY| ACTIVITY| Mondays and Tuesdays| Developmental reading skills with emphasis to comprehension. Wednesdays| Functional skills with emphasis on the materials in science, math, social studies, and other subject areas. | Thursdays| Literary appreciation skills with emphasis on reading for enjoyment and enrichment. | Fridays| Review and testing of the reading skills covered during the week, including unite test. | RECOMMENDATION Since it is for 3rd year high school students, as observed the book doesn’t have a lot of graphics which the learners like to see and learned, especially for the gestures taught.

I recommend that all pictures/illustrations must be in practical and visible design regarding with some activities, I prefer to suggest putting some rubrics for evaluation purposes. With their young age, I think this kind of activities is not truly appropriate. 3rd year high school students are in the stage of reading refinement wherein they can figure out the purpose for reading. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate reading strategies.

Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory. And of course select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students’ comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up skills simultaneously to construct meaning. Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed.

Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, helping them learn to use alternate and the directions to be followed or if they can’t put a glossary in the back of the book can surely help the learners if they can see the meanings of hard words they have encountered. Another thing is the book must have an index, because an index seeks to direct the reader/s to all names and subjects on which the book has information. Index can set as a guide with the learners if they are in trouble of finding their lessons.