The categories of speech

The noun and the verb are the most important categories of speech. The verb is the most important. These categories are the nucleus of the sentence, which is composed of the subject and the predicate. The verb lexeme needs determination too. The verb must express time, person and other distinctions. Besides these distinctions, the verb must express such semantic functions as terminativity/boundness and non-terminativity. Process is expressed by the verb. It has an end point: the process of writing end when some product is created.

Bounded words have a final aim: they express process limited in time. Non-bounded processes have no end-point (e. g. John is walking in the park – non-bounded / – to the park – bounded (the end is park). Bounded processes are purposive – they have an aim. Unbounded processes have no aim. Verbs are divided into finite and non-finite forms. Finite forms are determined processes. Non-finite forms are also determined forms (e. g. Walk (v) – must be grammatically processed).

Processes can’t be imagined without persons. The grammatical category of person speaks of the role that each participant plays in the process. When the speaker has himself in mind, we have the 1st person (e. g. I’m walking now). When the speaker speaks to addressee, we have the 2nd person (e. g. You are to work harder). When the speaker refers neither to himself, nor to the addressee, we have the 3rd person. The grammatical category of person refers to the role of each participant in the act of communication.

The category of person in synthetic language is lexicalised and grammaticalised (expressed by appropriate pronouns and inflections of the verb). In languages where person is fully grammaticalised the use of lexicalised persons is grammatically redundant (but not communicatively). In languages where person is not grammaticalised, person distinctions are expressed by appropriate personal pronouns. In English person distinctions are not grammaticalised (only the 1st person singular). English expresses words analytically.

The grammatical category of number is concerned with the number of participants carrying out the process (e. g. John, Marry, Peter are walking in the garden). Only the inflection ‘s’ is the marker of number in English. Number and person are blended (combined into one inflection). We must turn to the pronouns and nouns. The analysis of the categories of person and number shows that English has practically lost its verbal inflections and heavily relies on pronouns and nouns. The grammatical category of tense stands for a verb form sed to express a tune relation and it varies in different languages. Time is unlimited duration in which things are considered as happening in the past, present or future and it is independent of language and it stands for a concept which all mankind is familiar with. Time can be expressed lexically and grammatically (e. g. John is (grammatically) working in his study now (lexically)). English has three sets of temporal adjuncts which refer to: 1)the present (now, today, this morning, this century); 2)the past (yesterday, last week, last year); 3)the future (tomorrow, next minute).