1 . The fundamental ideas associated with the mercantile theory were: that everything was to benefit the mother country, each nation was trying to achieve self-sufficiency, colonies and agriculture would improve economy and raw materials, and the country must benefit at the expense of others. For the most part, these ideas along with a few other minor pieces helped European nations to conquer much of the New and old world. Great Britain was the most successful with a vast overseas empire through North America, the West Indies, Africa and into India.
They governed their colonies effectively and efficiently maximizing power and economic strength over the world. The least successful would probably be Portugal. They initially started out strong, finding trade routes along Africa into Asia and conquering Brazil, however by the 18th century their empire had diminished to slight control of Brazil and almost no other colonies. 2. The main points of conflict between Britain and France in North America were in the St. Lawrence River valley and the Ohio River valley. These areas were huge enters of trade and influence of the Native Americans that both the French and English desired.
In the West Indies the conflict was mainly over crops and through naval battles. These skirmishes affected overseas trade and the flow of resources. In India, the conflict was mainly restricted to port cities and factories set up by the early English and French settlers along the Indian subcontinent. 3. Triangle trade was an extremely useful trading method to transport goods, raw materials, and resources between Europe, the Americas, and Africa. European sailors ould travel down to Africa and exchange weapons (mostly) for African slaves from West African kings.
These slaves were typically prisoners of war that the rival African cities wanted to get rid of. Europeans would transport these slaves to the West Indies and North American colonies were they would be traded for bullion and raw materials found and grown in the New World. Finally those ships would take the materials back to Europe were they could be sold and traded to the rest of the world. Triangle trade was an effective way for mercantilist empires to become more self- ufficient and grow economically. 4. Initially, the Spanish conquered and controlled the largest empire in the Americas.
They had colonies in much of the rich West Indies, all throughout Central America, most of South America, and the South West of North America. They would split much of their territories into Judicial councils called audiencias. Each audiencia had a local official loyal to the Spanish crown called a Corregidor. Before the Bourbon reforms, Queen Isabella had assigned much of the colonial control to the Council of the Indies, hich nominated viceroys for the New World. Trade was mostly ruled by a flota system of yearly shipping with Spain.
With the Bourbon reforms, Charles Ill attemoted to reassert Spanish control over the colonies. He allowed more than one Spanish city (Cadiz) to trade with the New World and opened more Caribbean ports. colonists) as the heads of society. They were the elites while the creoles were subordinate. 5. Slavery was introduced to the Americas through the triangle trading networks where large numbers of blacks were brought over form Africa. This wasn’t the first nstitution of slavery, however it is one of the worst recordings of slavery throughout history.
Slavery became a fundamental part of the plantation system and completely necessary to the New World colonies’ economies. Without slaves, much of the intense economic growth experienced by the New World and Europe would not have occurred. The plantation system helped drive inhumane treatment of slaves because they were then seen as property, farm tools, that could be replaced. When they misbehaved or didn’t function properly, the plantation owners would either fix them through torture) or kill them.
Despite the harsh treatment of slaves, our country and many others would arguably never have gotten to where it is today without them. 6. By the end of the Seven Years’ War, France and Austria came out defeated. In Europe, almost no borders or politics changed. Germany was still disputed and Prussia remained a strong power with England at its back. In North America, France lost all of their colonies and possessions. England and her North American colonies defeated the French and with the Treaty of Paris, cast them out.
The only real foothold France now held in the New World were through its West Indies possessions. Great Britain now came out as a world power and probably the strongest nation up until the USA’s uprising. 7. Many European, especially British, events and ideas helped influence the American Revolution and drive the colonists to rebel. The John Wilkes affair which challenged the Kings power and the influence of Parliament. John Wilkes criticized the peace negotiations with France after the Seven Years’ War and gained much support from mall property owners and the nobles who wished to drain the kings power.
America saw these demonstrations of proof as to the tyrannical nature of a monarchy. The Glorious Revolution also showed to the colonists how sometimes a new government must be instated to protect the people. Thinkers like John Locke and Thomas Paine also widely influenced the minds of many Americans. The American Revolution also caused a domino effect over much of the New World colonies like Haiti and other South American areas. It displayed the Enlightenment characteristics and helped inspire the French revolution. Great British political radicals saw that taxation of their North American colonies as far and Just. England had protected and defended them throughout the Seven Years’ War and they must share some of the burden. Also, American colonists paid significantly less taxes than the English citizens in Great Britain so they had no reason to complain. Americans were outraged because they were only represented through virtual representation. They felt that if the Parliament wished to tax the colonies, they must give them fair representation in Parliament, “no taxation without