He uses the scales of fate and justice to determine his actions, but he can also be persuaded by personal petitions from the gods. Also look for the gods’ role in scenes highlighting their functions. For example: Oath or swearing scenes: Zeus Guest friendship or xenia: Zeus Prophecy: Apollo Message bearing: Iris or Hermes Divine Epithets: Homer does not always refer to characters by their names. He can also refer to them via epithets or nicknames. For example: Atreides = Agamemnon and Menelaus Son of Menoitios = Patroklos Gerenian horseman = Nestor The same is true for the gods.
See how many gods you can recognize here: Which god is “father of gods and men”? Which goddess is owl-eyed? Which goddess is ox-eyed? Which god is the Lord of Hera? Which god is Argeiphontes or “the Guide”? Which god is “lord of the shining bolt”? Which god is “he who strikes from afar”? Which god is “lord of the silver bow”? Which god is “god of the dragging feet”? Which goddess is “goddess of the white arms”? Which goddess is Tritongeneia? Which god is the Son of Kronos? Which goddess is the Kyprian or the Lady of Kypros? Which god is “Worker from Afar”? Which god is the earth-shaker?
Which god is Phoibos? Which goddess is Pallas? The Gods in the Plot Here are some noteworthy scenes in which the gods play a significant role: Book 1 Apollo and the plague Athena restrains Achilles Zeus, Thetis, and Hera Hephaistos and his Parents Book 2 Zeus sends Agamemnon a dream Iris, the messenger goddess Book 3 Aphrodite rescues Paris from duel with Menelaus Aphrodite and Helen Book 4 Assembly of the Gods Hera gets Zeus to promise the defeat of Troy Athena persuades Pandaros to break the truce Book 5 Aphrodite rescues Aineias Diomedes wounds Aphrodite Aphrodite and Dione
Arming of Athene Diomedes wounds Ares Wounded Ares on Mt. Olympus Book 6 Trojan Women Pray to Athena Book 7 Conference between Athena and Apollo Athena and Apollo agree to a single combat (leads to contest between Hector and Ajax) Zeus and Poseidon Book 8 Assembly of the Gods Zeus forbids the gods from fighting and goes to Mt. Ida where he weighs the fates of the Greeks and the Trojans in a scale and the Greeks lose. Hera and Poseidon Hera and Athena Zeus Returns to Mt. Olympus Book 11 Zeus sends down Hate Zeus sends Iris to Hektor Book 13 Arrival of Poseidon who secretly helps the Greeks
Book 14 Hera seduces Zeus to distract him and help the Greeks Book 15 Zeus wakes from sleep to find Poseidon helping the Greeks. Gods on Olympus Athena calms Ares down Zeus sends message to Poseidon Zeus sends Apollo to Hektor to help the Trojans but reaffirms the ultimate fate of Troy. Book 16 Zeus weeps for Sarpedon Book 17 Zeus laments fate of Hektor Book 18 Thetis laments death of Patroklos with Achilles Thetis persuades Hephaistos to make new armor for Achilles. Book 19 Athena restores the strength of mourning Achilles Book 20 Assembly of the Gods
Zeus releases the gods to act as they will. Apollo talks to Aineias Hera and Poseidon plot Poseidon rescues Trojan Aeneas. Book 21 Achilles fights the river god with help of Hera and Poseidon. Hera encourages Hephaistos to help The gods in hand to hand combat: Ares, Aphrodite–Athena; Apollo–Poseidon; Hera–Artemis; Hermes–Leto Ares vs. Athena Book 22 Zeus weighs fate of Hector and he loses. Book 24 Assembly of the Gods Thetis is summoned to Olympus Zeus, through Thetis, commands Achilles to release the body of Hector. Hermes Psychopompos guides Priam to Achilles’ tent.