“Trait-based perspectives of leadership”

The more the employees are educated, the more they are able to work with the same leader within the climate, as they can adapt much more easily to the working style and attitude of the same person. The better the educational level attained, the better the job position reached, as career advancement and job perform are highly positively correlated to higher education. Higher education allows the person to lead better and communicate better with his/her subordinates; thus, he/she may reach better understanding and communications, which result in goal achievement efficiencies and improved understanding and management of others’ and one’s emotions. The higher the employee’s education and the better he/she is realistic, adaptable, diplomatic, humble and accepting of self, the more one knows him/herself, allowing one to better know how to interact with people and communicate with them and understand them more, which are the basic skills of EI. This is in line with Gardner (1983) and Kerr et al. (2006). Furthermore, the high correlation of total work experience with the tenure in the current firm and with the same leader can be attributed to the building of strong relationships in an environment where time heals and bridges the gaps of behaviour, attitudes and opinions. OC plays the role of the glue that binds all these factors towards forming uniformity. This process takes to the group formation process where efficiency is reached at the stages of norming and performing (Robbins and Judge, 2013) as employees do more than they are required to (Vrba, 2007).

Second, the researchers analysed the relationship of the variables of the model. Employees’ EI is positively correlated to leadership style in general. High EI leads to better understanding of leaders, accepting their work behaviour as leaders who know how to plan, organize, lead and control, delegate when it is needed, how to communicate, motivate, adapt, understand and empathize with others, thus creating a positive OC around them, which corroborates with the findings of Lopes et al. (2006), Rosete and Ciarrochi (2005), Gardner and Stough (2003), Wolff et al. (2002), Wong and Law (2002) and Bar-On and Parker (2000). In addition, the transformational leadership style is reported to be a better provider for cooperation, team-building and performance than does transactional style as also reported by Vrba (2007), Palmer et al. (2001) and Lowe et al. (1996). Moreover, higher EI allows these leaders to be more understanding and compassionate, influencing the performance of their subordinates (Humphrey, 2002; Pirola-Merlo et al., 2002), thus conveying a feeling to employees and creating OC in which these employees can confide, trust, learn and prosper in the direction of the goals set for them (Goleman, 1998). Furthermore, OC is positively correlated with leadership style, as the more accepted the leadership style by the followers/ subordinates, the more the leader adapts and knows how to interact, communicate, and motivate his/her subordinates. The latter creates a better OC in the organization leading to higher effectiveness (Sadri, 2012; Walter et al., 2011; Anand and Udaya-Suriyan, 2010).

Moreover, the deeper analysis regarding the three sub-factors of OC, namely, responsibility, reward and warmth and support, shows that responsibility and EI are positively correlated. A high EI leader knows how to delegate responsibility and give enough reward, recognition and motivation. In line with organizational behaviour studies on employee commitment, the more the leader shows respect and consideration towards them, the more the subordinates commit to the work nucleus. This applies on both a team or a group, which in turn reflects in a superior behaviour of responsibility and ownership vis-à-vis the work environment and work processes. The second sub-factor, reward, is negatively correlated with total work experience, work experience with current leader and with the organization’s type of work. This is due to the fact that reward is not given based on work experience but on behaviour, performance, goal achievement and accomplishments.