What is the first priority of a petroleum engineer? (5 points) The first priority of a petroleum engineer is safety. 2. What are the 5 elements of a petroleum system labeled on the illustration above? Green indicates hydrocarbon fill and E refers to the anticlinal structure. (10 points) A. Top Seal Rock (impermeable shale) B. Reservoir Rock (Porous sandstone) C. Source Rock (Organic-Rich shale) D. Potential migration route (Non-sealing fault) E. Anticlinal Trap 3. Name the four major disciplines of Petroleum Engineering. (4 points)
Reservoir Engineering, Production Engineering, Petrophysics (Formation Evaluation), and Drilling. 4. What are the three main purposes of drilling fluid (mud)? (6 points) It maintains hydrostatic pressure to control the well, it circulates rock cuttings to the surface for analysis, and it cools the drill bit. 5. Which of the following is NOT a drive mechanism–Solution gas drive, Reservoir Compaction, Gravity Segregation, or Natural water drive? (5 points) Gravity segregation is not a drive mechanism. 6. The supercontinent Pangaea started to break up about 200 million years ago.
Are most hydrocarbon reservoirs in rocks that are younger than the start of the breakup, or older? (5 points) Most reservoirs were formed in the Jurassic and Cretaceous period. The age of these periods are less the 200 million years old. Therefore, the reservoir rocks are younger than the start of the Pangaea breakup. 7. Explain the main driving force behind Plate Tectonics. (5 points) The main driving force behind plate tectonics is convection. The mantle is liquid so it moves in a circular motion that drives Earth’s crust to move. The mantle behaves like water would if you were boiling water.
A mnemonic is a word trick that helps you to remember a sequence of information. Give a mnemonic that can be used to help you remember the 7 Periods of the Paleozoic Era. (5 points) Paleozoic Periods Make Distinctions with Start Of Cambrian. 9. Name the three types of sedimentary rocks, indicate whether each is a reservoir, source, and/or seal, and name an example rock for each. (10 points) There are clastics, nonclastics, and evaporites. Clastics include sandstone, which is a reservoir, and shale, which is a source, trap, and also a reservoir.
An example of a nonclastic is carbonate, which is a reservoir. An example of an evaporite is salt, which is a trap. 10. The seismic reflection coefficient R for the interface between two layers of rock is given (approximately) by the following equation for normal incidence (sound raypaths hit the interface between two rock layers at a right angle), where ? 1 is the density of layer 1 (top), ? 2 is the density of layer 2 (bottom), v1 is the velocity of sound in layer 1 (top) and v2 is the velocity of sound in layer 2 (bottom): Calculate the reflection coefficient R if ?1 = 2. 1 gm/cm3, ? 2 = 2. 2 gm/cm3, v1 = 1500 m/s, and v2 = 2000 m/s. (5 points) The reflection coefficient is 0. 17 11. Why do Petroleum Engineers care about Plate Tectonics? (4 points) It tells them about the creation of structures and basins. It also helps them identify places where there are potential reservoirs or source rocks. 12. Flow from a pressured “zone” (interval of porous rock) encountered while drilling is controlled when the mud weight in the wellbore provides a pressure that equals or exceeds the pressure of the zone.
There is a pressured zone at 8000psi penetrated while drilling at 15,000ft in a vertical well. What minimum mud weight is necessary to control flow from this zone? (Hydrostatic pressure in psi = 0. 052 x Mud Weight (ppg) x True Vertical Depth (ft. )). (6 points) 8000 psi/15,000 ft. x 0. 052 = 10. 3 ppg. The mud weight is 10. 3 ppg. 13. List 5 of the top 10 Ways to Reduce Stress, according to Reuben Parrish (5 points) 1. Breathe 2. Use a calendar 3. Evaluate yourself at the end of every week 4. Establish effective environments 5. Utilize a “To-Do” List