11) To be categorized as a customer, an individual must have a history of shopping at the establishment at least twice before the start of the study with expenditures of more than $10. This is an example of _____.
A. a hypothetical construct
B. a conceptual scheme
C. an operational definition
D. a dictionary definition
12) James is entering data on client gender. Because the values entered reflect male or female, this variable is _____.
13) Which variable in an experiment is the variable expected to be affected by the manipulation?
A. Dependent variable
B. Extraneous variable
C. Moderating variable
D. Independent variable
14) Qualitative research seeks to _____ theory while quantitative research _____ it.
A. examine; interprets
B. build; tests
C. test; understands
D. apply; builds
15) Which of the following is true of quantitative research?
A. It uses a nonprobability sampling method
B. Results are generalizable
C. Data analysis is ongoing during the project
D. Sample sizes are generally small
16) The use of a control group in experimentation _____.
A. provides for the manipulation of the independent variable
B. serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation
C. minimizes the cost of experimentation
D. allows for discovery of the average effect of the independent variable in different situations
17) What is the first step in conducting an experiment?
A. Specify the level(s) of the treatment
B. Choose the experimental design
C. Control the experimental environment
D. Select relevant variables
18) Data originating from studies that are conducted by others and created for a purpose different from the purpose of the study for which the data are being reviewed are called _____ data
19) The goal of a formal study is to _____.
A. discover future research tasks
B. expand understanding of a topic
C. test hypotheses
D. provide insight
20) A _____ scale is a scale that scores an object or property without making a direct comparison to another object or property.