# Which of the research questions/hypotheses below is best answered using cross-tabulations?

20) A _____ scale is a scale that scores an object or property without making a direct comparison to another object or property.

A. ranking

B. rating

C. categorization

D. sorting

21) What type of data is produced by simple category scales?

A. Nominal

B. Ordinal

C. Interval

D. Ratio

22) _____ is the extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what we wish to measure.

A. Reliability

B. Validity

C. Practicality

D. Significance

23) The list of elements in a population from which the sample is drawn is known as the _____.

*A. sampling frame*

B. population extent

C. database

D. sampling base

24) The process of ensuring the accuracy of data and their conversion from raw form into classified forms appropriate for analysis is called _____.

A. coding

B. data entry

C. data preparation

D. data measurement

25) _____ involves assigning numbers or other symbols to answers so that the responses can be grouped into a limited number of categories

A. Editing

B. Data entry

C. Coding

D. Measurement

26) The standard error of the estimate is a type of measure of _____.

A. central tendency

B. accuracy

C. significance

D. standard deviation

27) _____ are summary descriptors of variables of interest in the population

A. Sample statistics

B. Population parameters

C. Systematic estimates

D. Standard errors

28) The measure of deviation from the mean such that cases stretch toward one tail or the other is called _____.

A. kurtosis

B. platykurtic

C. skewness

D. ku

29) Which of the research questions/hypotheses below is best answered using cross-tabulations?

A. What percentage of men and women prefer Brand A over Brand B?

B. What percentage of residents shop at the local grocery store?

C. Is brand loyalty related to brand image?

D. What happens to sales when prices drop?

30) If a difference is not caused only by random sampling fluctuations, it is said to have _____.

A. resistance

B. statistical significance

C. substantive significance

D. reasonable doubt